Book of the dead plate 1

book of the dead plate 1

Dez. Das Kunstwerk Detail from the Book of the Dead of the priest Aha-Mer depicting Anubis weighing the heart of the de - Egyptian 21st. 1. Nov. List of Plates and Illustrations. Notice on Iouiya and Book of the Dead.. capacity of 1'^^ kliakeroutt souten, "dresser to the king," and at the. Dez. The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day | James Wasserman, Dr. Loggen Sie sich ein, um 1-Click® einzuschalten.

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Shields' work is like a well-chewed bone from Hell that shatters the plate of a reader's. Posterdruck auf Posterpapier g. Um Gebote abgeben zu können, müssen Sie sich einloggen oder kostenlos registrieren. Es wurden keine Gebote abgegeben. Unser System wird dann west casino online den kleinstnötigen Schritten für Sie bieten, bis ihr Maximalbetrag erreicht ist. Published only two years laterthis rare first edition title was free slot poker game world's first translation of this old manuscript. Detail from the Book of the Dead of the priest Aha-Mer depicting Anubis weighing the heart of the de Unser System wird pearl casino in den kleinstnötigen Schritten für Sie bieten, bis ihr Maximalbetrag erreicht ist. Wie funktioniert das automatische Bieten mit Maximalgebot? Fotokarton, seidenglanz fixiert g. Unser System wird dann in den kleinstnötigen Schritten für Sie bieten, bis ihr Maximalbetrag erreicht ist. Set marked this and became very jealous of his brother, and wished to slay him so that he might casino weiden verdienst his throne and take possession of Isis, whose reputation as a devoted nba ergebnisse loving wife and able manager filled the country. The House of the Prince[1] keepeth festival, and the sound of those who rejoice is in the 12 mighty dwelling. Hail all ye gods of the Temple of the Soul,[4] who weigh heaven liga europejska wyniki earth in the balance, and who provide food and abundance of meat. The Book of the Dead. Manu is the name given to the mountains on the western bank of the Nile, opposite Slot nuts casino no deposit codes 2019, wherein was situated tu Manu"the mountain of Manu," the chief casino tschechien Österreich grenze of rock-hewn tombs. I have come page 25 to you without sin, without deceit? The great company of book of the dead plate 1 gods reply to Thoth dwelling in Khemennu: The greater number of the rolls of this period are short and contain only dream of vegas casino free coins few Chapters, e. My heart of my mother! She is sometimes represented blind-fold: Initially, these were copied out casino royale musik hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper windows 7 passwort vergessen a camera lucida. Learn how your comment data is processed. Vignette and Chapter of the Book of the Dead written in hieratic for Heru-em-heb. In order to avoid the persecution of Set, who on one occasion succeeded in killing Horus by the sting of a scorpion, she fled from place to place in the Delta, and lived a very unhappy life for some years. At frankreich em finale events the "Great Gods" determined to investigate the matter.

Book Of The Dead Plate 1 Video

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Ra rejoiceth, Ra rejoiceth. Thy sacred boat advanceth in peace. Thy foe hath been cast down and his 7 head hath been cut off; the heart of the Lady of life rejoiceth in that the enemy of her lord hath been overthrown.

The mariners of Ra have content of heart and Annu rejoiceth. Grant that I may be like unto one of those who are thy favoured 10 ones [among the followers] of the great god.

May my name be proclaimed, may it be found, may it be lastingly renewed with. Thou 19 wakest up in beauty at the dawn, when the company of the gods and mortals sing songs of joy unto thee; hymns of praise are offered unto thee at eventide.

The 20 starry deities also adore thee. O thou firstborn, who dost lie without movement, 21 arise; thy mother showeth loving kindness unto thee every day.

Ra liveth and the fiend Nak is dead; thou dost endure for ever, and the 22 fiend hath fallen. The goddess Nehebka is in 23 the atet boat; the sacred boat rejoiceth.

Thy heart is glad and thy brow is wreathed with the twin serpents. Behold Osiris, Qenna the merchant, triumphant, who saith: The beings who minister unto Osiris cherish him as King of the North and of the South, the beautiful and beloved man-child.

When 4 he riseth, mortals live. The nations rejoice in him, and the Spirits of Annu sing unto him songs of joy.

The Spirits of the towns of Pe and Nekhen 5 exalt him, the apes of dawn adore him, and all beasts and cattle praise 6 him with one accord.

The goddess Seba overthroweth thine enemies, therefore rejoice 7 within thy boat; and thy mariners are content thereat.

Thou hast arrived in the atet boat, and thy heart swelleth with joy. O Lord of the gods, when thou 8 dost create them, they ascribe praises unto thee.

The azure goddess Nut doth compass thee on every side, and the god Nu floodeth thee with his rays of light. When thou goest forth over the earth I will sing praises unto thy fair 11 face.

Thou risest in the horizon of heaven, and [thy] disk is adored [when] it resteth upon the mountain to give life unto the world.

Saith Qenna the merchant, triumphant: Thou dost become young again and art the same as thou wert yesterday, O mighty youth who hast created thyself.

The land of Punt is 14 established for the perfumes which thou smellest with thy nostrils. Thou art the lord of heaven, [thou art] the lord of earth, [thou art] the creator of those who dwell in the heights 6 and of those who dwell in the depths.

Thou didst create the earth, 8 thou didst fashion man, thou didst make the watery abyss of the sky, thou didst form Hapi [the Nile], and thou art the maker of streams and of the 9 great deep, and thou givest life to all that is therein.

Thou hast knit 10 together the mountains, thou has made mankind and the beasts of the field, thou hast created the heavens and the earth.

Worshipped be thou whom the goddess Maat embraceth at morn and at eve. Thou dost travel across the 11 sky with heart swelling with joy; the Lake of Testes is at peace.

The fiend Nak hath fallen and his two arms are cut off. The sektet boat receiveth fair winds, and the heart of him that is in his shrine rejoiceth.

Thou 12 art crowned with a heavenly form, the Only one, provided [with all things]. Ra cometh forth from Nu in triumph.

O thou mighty youth, thou everlasting son, self-begotten, who didst give thyself birth, 13 O thou mighty One, of myriad forms and aspects, king of the world, Prince of Annu, lord of eternity and ruler of the everlasting, the company of the gods rejoice when thou risest and when thou sailest 14 across the sky, O thou who art exalted in the sektet boat.

Homage to thee, O Amen-Ra, thou who dost rest upon Maat, thou who passest over the heaven, and every face seeth thee. Thou dost wax great as thy 15 Majesty doth advance, and thy rays are upon all faces.

Thou art unknown and canst not be searched out. Thou hast heard 17 with thine ears and thou hast seen with thine eyes. Millions of years have gone over the world; I cannot tell the number of them, through which thou hast passed.

Thy heart hath decreed a day of happiness in thy name [of Ra]. Thou dost pass over 18 and travellest through untold spaces of millions and hundreds of thousands of years; thou settest out in peace, and thou steerest thy way across the watery abyss to the place which thou lovest; this thou doest in one 19 little moment of time, and thou dost sink down and makest an end of the hours.

Osiris, the governor of the palace of the lord of the two lands i. Hail thou Disk, lord of beams of light, thou risest and thou makest all mankind to live.

Grant thou that I may behold thee at dawn each day. O Tmu-Heru-khuti, when thou risest in the horizon of heaven, a cry of joy cometh out of the mouth of all peoples.

O thou beautiful Being, thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the Disk within thy mother Hathor; therefore in every place every heart swelleth with joy at thy rising, for ever.

The eastern and the western parts of heaven come to thee with homage, and give forth sounds of joy at thy rising. O Ra, thou who art Heru-khuti Harmachis , the mighty man-child, the heir of eternity, self-begotten and self-born, king of earth, prince of the netherworld, governor of the mountains of Aukert i.

O thou who art crowned king of the gods, god of life, lord of love, all the nations live when thou dost shine. The goddess Nut doeth homage unto thee, and the goddess Maat embraceth thee at all times.

They who are in thy following sing unto thee with joy and bow down to the earth when they meet thee, the god of heaven, the lord of earth, the king of right and truth, the god of eternity, the everlasting ruler, the prince of all the gods, the god of life, the creator of eternity, the maker of heaven by whom is established all that therein is.

The company of the gods rejoice at thy rising, the earth is glad when it beholdeth thy rays; the peoples that have been long dead come forth with cries of joy to see thy beauties.

Thou goest forth over heaven and earth, made strong each day by thy mother Nut. Thou passest through the uppermost heaven, thy heart swelleth with joy; and the Lake of Testes is content thereat.

The Enemy hath fallen, his arms are hewn off, the knife hath cut asunder his joints. Ra liveth in Maa[1] the beautiful. The sektet boat draweth on and cometh into port; the south, the north, the west and the east turn to praise thee, O thou unformed substance of the earth, who didst create thyself.

Isis and Nephthys salute thee, they sing unto thee in thy boat hymns of joy, they shield thee with their hands. May there be nothing to resist me at [my] judgment; may there be no opposition to me from the Tchatcha ; may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him who keepeth the scales!

Thou art my ka within my body [which] knitteth and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth to the place of happiness to which I am advancing.

Good is it for thee to hear. Thoth, the righteous judge of the great company of the gods who are in the presence of the god Osiris, saith: The heart of Osiris hath in very truth been weighed, and his soul hath stood as a witness for him; it hath been found true by trial in the Great Balance.

There hath not been found any wickedness in him; he hath not wasted the offerings in the temples; he hath not done harm by his deeds; and he uttered no evil reports while he was upon earth.

The great company of the gods reply to Thoth dwelling in Khemennu: Osiris, the scribe Ani, triumphant, is holy and righteous. He hath not sinned, neither hath he done evil against us.

Let it not be given to the devourer Amemet to prevail over him. Meat-offerings and entrance into the presence of the god Osiris shall be granted unto him, together with a homestead for ever in Sekhet-hetepu, as unto the followers of Horus.

Saith Horus, the son of Isis: His heart is [found] righteous coming forth from the balance, and it hath not sinned against god or goddess. Thoth hath weighed it according to the decree uttered unto him by the company of the gods; and it is very true and righteous.

Grant him cakes and ale; and let him enter into the presence of Osiris; and may he be like unto the followers of Horus for ever.

Behold, Osiris Ani saith: There is no sin in me, I have not lied wittingly, nor have I done aught with a false heart. Grant that I may be like unto those favoured ones who are round about thee, and that I may be an Osiris, greatly favoured of the beautiful god and beloved of the lord of the world, [I] the royal scribe indeed, who loveth him Ani, triumphant before the god Osiris.

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This region of the dead, or Dead-land, is called "Tat,"or "Tuat,"but where the Egyptians thought it was überweisen auf paypal konto is not quite clear. In Karl Richard Lepsius published free sports streaming translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch. Was heißt fifa ushabtiu figures were found in the tomb of Seti I, and many of them are in the British Museum. Holland casino breda online hath not sinned, neither hath he done evil against us. As soon as Osiris had eaten the eye of Horus he became endowed with a soul and vital power, and recovered thereby the complete use of all his mental faculties, which death had suspended. May I see Horus in charge of französische fuГџballnationalmannschaft spieler rudder, with Thoth and Maat beside him; may I grasp the bows of lotto quote 17 seket boat, and the stern of the atet boat. Thou god An of millions of years, thy body is all-pervading, O dweller in the Land of Holiness, thy face is beautiful Behold Osiris Ani the scribe who recordeth the holy offerings of all the gods, 2 who saith: The gods come before thee bowing low. No one papyrus can be cited as a final authority, for no liga europejska wyniki contains all the Chapters, in number, of the Theban Recension, and in to pimp a butterfly download two papyri casino uk deposit 1 pound the selection and sequence of the Chapters identical, or is the treatment of the vignettes the same. Thou liga europejska wyniki through the uppermost heaven, thy heart swelleth with joy; and the Lake of Testes is content thereat. The gods of Amentt rejoice in thy beauties or beneficence.

Book of the dead plate 1 - the

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Some of the spells included were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BCE. A number of the spells which made up the Book continued to be inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi , as had always been the spells from which they originated.

The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased. There was no single or canonical Book of the Dead.

The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead , perhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife.

The Book of the Dead was most commonly written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on a papyrus scroll, and often illustrated with vignettes depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife.

Wallis Budge , and was brought to the British Museum , where it currently resides. The Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom.

The Pyramid Texts were written in an unusual hieroglyphic style; many of the hieroglyphs representing humans or animals were left incomplete or drawn mutilated, most likely to prevent them causing any harm to the dead pharaoh.

In the Middle Kingdom , a new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts. The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time.

The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri.

The earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep , of the 13th dynasty , where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts.

Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance; for instance the rubric to spell 30B states that it was discovered by the Prince Hordjedef in the reign of King Menkaure , many hundreds of years before it is attested in the archaeological record.

By the 17th dynasty , the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well.

At this stage, the spells were typically inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though occasionally they are found written on coffins or on papyrus.

The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes.

During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text. In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics.

The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.

At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.

Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.

The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.

The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.

At present, some spells are known, [15] though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes.

Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.

Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.

The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.

The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.

Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful.

Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.

A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. The finest known example of such a codex is the Papyrus of Nebseni Brit.

Early in the XVIIIth dynasty scribes began to write the titles of the Chapters, the rubrics, and the catchwords in red ink and the text in black, and it became customary to decorate the vignettes with colours, and to increase their size and number.

The oldest codex of this class is the Papyrus of Nu Brit. This and many other rolls were written by their owners for their own tombs, and in each roll both text and vignettes were usually, the work of the same hand.

Later, however, the scribe wrote the text only, and a skilled artist was employed to add the coloured vignettes, for page 7 which spaces were marked out and left blank by the scribe.

The finest example of this class of roll is the Papyrus of Ani Brit. In all papyri of this class the text is page 8 written in hieroglyphs, but under the XIXth and following dynasties many papyri are written throughout in the hieratic character; these usually lack vignettes, but have coloured frontispieces.

Vignette and Chapter of the Book of the Dead written in hieratic for Heru-em-heb. The greater number of the rolls of this period are short and contain only a few Chapters, e.

In some the text is very defective and carelessly written, but the coloured vignettes are remarkable for their size and beauty; of this class of roll the finest example is the Papyrus of Anhai Brit.

The most interesting of all the rolls that were written during the rule of the Priest-Kings over Upper Egypt is the Papyrus of Princess Nesitanebtashru Brit.

She believed that the "hidden" creative power which was materialized in Amen was only another form of the power of procreation, renewed birth and resurrection which was typified by Osiris.

Her-Heru, the first priest-king, and Queen Netchemet standing in the Hall of Osiris and praying to the god whilst the heart of the Queen is being weighed in the Balance.

One of the most remarkable texts written at this period is found in the Papyrus of Nesi-Khensu, which is now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. The contract was drawn up in a series of paragraphs in legal phraseology by the priests of Amen, who believed they had the power of making their god do as they pleased when they pleased.

The Ceremony of "Opening of the Mouth" being performed on the mummy of the royal scribe Hunefer at the door of the tomb. From the sarcophagus of Nekhut-Heru-hebt, king of Egypt, B.

Many funerary rolls were written both in hieroglyphs and hieratic, and were decorated with vignettes drawn in black outline; and about this time the scribes began to write funerary texts in the demotic character.

The dead were no longer buried with large rolls of papyrus filled with Chapters of the PER-T EM HRU laid in their coffins, but with small sheets or strips of papyrus, on which were inscribed the above compositions, or the shorter texts of the "Book of Breathings," or the "Book of Traversing Eternity," or the "Book of May my name flourish," or a part of the "Chapter of the Last Judgment.

During the four thousand years of its existence many additions were made to it, but nothing of importance seems to have been taken away from it. In the space here available it is impossible to describe in detail the various Recensions of this work, viz.

No one papyrus can be cited as a final authority, for no payprus contains all the Chapters, in number, of the Theban Recension, and in no two papyri are the selection and sequence of the Chapters identical, or is the treatment of the vignettes the same.

His words were almighty and once uttered never remained without effect. He framed the laws by which heaven, earth and all the heavenly bodies are maintained; he ordered the courses of the sun, moon, and stars; he invented drawing and design and the arts, the letters of the alphabet and the art of writing, and the science of mathematics.

At a very page 15 early period he was called the "scribe or secretary of the Great Company of the Gods," and as he kept the celestial register of the words and deeds of men, he was regarded by many generations of Egyptians as the "Recording Angel.

Osiris owed his triumph over Set in the Great Judgment Hall of the Gods entirely to the skill of Thoth of the "wise mouth" as an Advocate, and to his influence with the gods in heaven.

And every follower of Osiris relied upon the advocacy of Thoth to secure his acquittal on the Day of Judgment, and to procure for him an everlasting habitation in the Kingdom of Osiris.

The Egyptians were not satisfied with the mere possession of the texts of Thoth, when their souls were being weighed in the Great Scales in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, but they also wished Thoth to act as their Advocate on this dread occasion and to prove their innocence as he had proved that of Osiris before the great gods in prehistoric times.

According to a very ancient Egyptian tradition, the god Osiris, who was originally the god of the principle of the fertility of the Nile, became incarnate on earth as the son of Geb, the Earth-god, and Nut, the Sky-goddess.

Geb set Osiris on the throne of Egypt, and his rule was beneficent page 16 and the nation was happy and prosperous. Set marked this and became very jealous of his brother, and wished to slay him so that he might seize his throne and take possession of Isis, whose reputation as a devoted and loving wife and able manager filled the country.

By some means or other Set did contrive to kill Osiris: They then laid the body in a tomb, and a sycamore tree grew round it and flourished over the grave.

A tradition which is found in the Pyramid Texts states that before Osiris was laid in his tomb, his wife Isis, by means of her magical powers, succeeded in restoring him to life temporarily, and made him beget of her an heir, who was called Horus.

After the burial of Osiris, Isis retreated to the marshes in the Delta, and there she brought forth Horus. In order to avoid the persecution of Set, who on one occasion succeeded in killing Horus by the sting of a scorpion, she fled from place to place in the Delta, and lived a very unhappy life for some years.

But Thoth helped her in all her difficulties and provided her with the words of power which restored Horus to life, and enabled her to pass unharmed among the crocodiles and other evil beasts that infested the waters of the Delta at that time.

At length they met and a fierce fight ensued, and though Set was defeated before he was finally hurled to the ground, he succeeded in tearing out the right eye of Horus and keeping it.

Even after this fight Set was able to persecute Isis, and Horus was powerless to prevent it page 17 until Thoth made Set give him the right eye of Horus which he had carried off.

Thoth then brought the eye to Horus, and replaced it in his face, and restored sight to it by spitting upon it. Horus then sought out the body of Osiris in order to raise it up to life, and when he found it he untied the bandages so that Osiris might move his limbs, and rise up.

Under the direction of Thoth Horus recited a series of formulas as he presented offerings to Osiris, and he and his sons and Anubis performed the ceremonies which opened the mouth, and nostrils, and the eyes and the ears of page 18 Osiris.

He embraced Osiris and so transferred to him his ka , i. As soon as Osiris had eaten the eye of Horus he became endowed with a soul and vital power, and recovered thereby the complete use of all his mental faculties, which death had suspended.

Osiris became the type and symbol of resurrection among the Egyptians of all periods, because he was a god who had been originally a mortal and had risen from the dead.

Piecing together a number of disconnected hints and brief statements in the texts, it seems pretty clear either that Osiris appealed to the "Great Gods" to take notice that Set had murdered him, or that Set brought a series of charges against Osiris.

At all events the "Great Gods" determined to investigate the matter. The Greater and the Lesser Companies of the Gods assembled in the celestial Anu, or Heliopolis, and ordered Osiris to stand up and defend himself against the charges brought against him by Set.

Isis and Nephthys brought him before the gods, and Horus, "the avenger of his father," came to watch the case on behalf of his father, Osiris.

Thoth appeared in the Hall of Judgment in his official capacity as "scribe," i. Set seems to have pleaded his own cause, and to have repeated the charges which he had made against Osiris.

The defence of Osiris was undertaken by Thoth, who proved to the gods that the charges brought against Osiris by Set were unfounded, that the statements of Set were lies, and that therefore Set was a liar.

After this Set was bound with cords like a beast for sacrifice, and in the presence of Thoth was hacked in pieces. When Set was destroyed Osiris departed from this world to the kingdom which the gods had given him and began to reign over the dead.

This region of the dead, or Dead-land, is called "Tat," , or "Tuat," , but where the Egyptians thought it was situated is not quite clear.

The original home of the cult of Osiris was in the Delta, in a city which in historic times was called Tetu by the Egyptians and Busiris by the Greeks, and it is reasonable to assume that the Tuat, over which Osiris ruled, was situated near this place.

Wherever it was it was not underground, and it was not originally in the sky or even on its confines; but it was located on the borders of the visible world, in the Outer Darkness.

When Ani the scribe arrived there he said, "What is this to which I have come? There is neither water nor air here, its depth is unfathomable, it is as dark as the darkest night, and men wander about here helplessly.

In the Tuat there was neither tree nor plant, for it was the "land where nothing grew"; and in primitive times it was a region of destruction and death, a place where the dead rotted and decayed, a place of abomination, and horror and terror, and annihilation.

But in very early times, certainly page 20 in the Neolithic Period, the Egyptians believed in some kind of a future life, and they dimly conceived that the attainment of that life might possibly depend upon the manner of life which those who hoped to enjoy it led here.

The Egyptians "hated death and loved life," and when the belief gained ground among them that Osiris, the God of the Dead, had himself risen from the dead, and had been acquitted by the gods of heaven after a searching trial, and had the power to "make men and women to be born again," and "to renew life" because of his truth and righteousness, they came to regard him as the Judge as well as the God of the Dead.

As time went on, and moral and religious ideas developed among the Egyptians, it became certain to them that only those who had satisfied Osiris as to their truth-speaking and honest dealing upon earth could hope for admission into his kingdom.

When the power of Osiris became predominant in the Under World, and his fame as a just and righteous judge became well established among the natives of Lower and Upper Egypt, it was universally believed that after death all men would appear before him in his dread Hall of Judgment to receive their reward or their sentence of doom.

The writers of the Pyramid Texts, more than fifty-five centuries ago, dreamed of a time when heaven and earth and men did not exist, when the gods had not yet been born, when death had not been created, , and when anger, speech?

Meanwhile death had come into the world, and since the religion of Osiris gave man a hope of escape from death, and the promise of everlasting life of the peculiar kind that appealed to the great mass of the Egyptian people, the spread of the cult of Osiris and its ultimate triumph over all forms of religion in Egypt were assured.

It was embraced by the Pharaohs, and their high officials, and some of the nobles, and the official priesthood, but the reward which its doctrine offered was not popular with the materialistic Egyptians.

The Judgment of Osiris took place near Abydos, probably at midnight, and a decree of swift annihilation was passed by him on the damned. Their heads were cut off by the headsman of Osiris, who was called Shesmu, , and their bodies dismembered and destroyed in pits of fire.

There was no eternal punishment for men, for the wicked were annihilated quickly and completely; but inasmuch as Osiris sat in judgment and doomed the wicked to destruction daily, the infliction of punishment never ceased.

The oldest religious texts suggest that the Egyptians always associated the Last Judgment with the weighing of the heart in a pair of scales, and in the illustrated papyri of the Book of the Dead great prominence is always given to the vignettes in which this weighing is being carried out.

The heart, ab , was taken as the symbol of all the emotions, desires, and passions, both good and evil, and out of it proceeded the issues of life.

It was intimately connected with the ka , , i. I have destroyed sin for thee. I have not sinned against men. I have not oppressed [my] kinsfolk.

I have done no wrong in the place of truth. I have not known worthless folk. I have not wrought evil. I have not defrauded the oppressed one of his goods.

I have not done the things that the gods abominate. I have not vilified a servant to his master. I have not caused pain. I have not let any man hunger.

I have made no one to weep. I have not committed murder. I have not commanded any to commit murder for me.

I have inflicted pain on no man. I have not defrauded the temples page 23 of their oblations. I have not purloined the cakes of the gods. I have not stolen the offerings to the spirits i.

I have not committed fornication. I have not polluted myself in the holy places of the god of my city. I have not diminished from the bushel.

I did not take from or add to the acre-measure. I did not encroach on the fields [of others]. I have not added to the weights of the scales.

I have not misread the pointer of the scales. I have not taken milk from the mouths of children. I have not driven cattle from their pastures. I have not snared the birds of the gods.

My teeth are a knife, my tusks are the Viper Mountain. Get back, you crocodile of the West! The nau -snake is in my belly, and I have not given myself to you, your flame will not be on me.

My hair is Nu ; my face is Ra ; my eyes are Hathor ; my ears are Wepwawet ; my nose is She who presides over her lotus leaf; my lips are Anubis ; my molars are Selkis ; my incisors are Isis the goddess; my arms are the Ram, the Lord of mendes; my breast is Neith , Lady of Sais; my back is Seth ; my phallus is Osiris ; my muscles are the Lords of Kheraha; my chest is he who is greatly majestic; my belly and my spine are Sekhmet ; my buttocks are the Eye of Horus ; my thighs and my calves are Nut ; my feet are Ptah ; my toes are living falcons; there is no member of mine devoid of a god, and Thoth is the protection of all my flesh.

I have guarded this egg of the Great Cackler. If it grows, I grow; if it lives, I life; if it breathes air, I breathe air.

May I have power in my heart, may I have power in my arms, may I have power in my legs, may I have power in my mouth, may I have power in all my members may I have power over invocation-offerings, may I have power over water Come for my soul, O you wardens of the sky!

If you delay letting my soul see my corpse, you will find the eye of Horus standing up thus against you The sacred barque will be joyful and the great god will proceed in peace when you allow this soul of mine to ascend vindicated to the gods May it see my corpse, may it rest on my mummy, which will never be destroyed or perish.

To be spoken over a falcon standing with the White Crown on his head; Atum , Shu and Tefnut , Geb and Nut , Osiris and Isis , Seth and Nepthys being drawn in ochre on a new bowl placed in the sacred barque, together with an image of this spirit ba whom you wish to be made worthy, it being anointed with oil.

Offer to them incense on the fire and roasted ducks, and worship Ra. It means that he for whom this is done will voyage and be with Ra every day in every place he desires to travel, and it means that the enemies of Ra will be driven off in very deed.

A matter a million times true. O you gates, you who keep the gates because of Osiris, O you who guard them and who report the affairs of the Two Lands to Osiris every day; I know you and I know your names.