Coke deutsch

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Übersetzung für 'coke' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'coke' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzungen für cola im Spanisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online: cola, cola de caballo, llevar la cola, cola de espera. Immer mehr Frauen und Kinder kamen auf den Geschmack und wünschten sich, Coca-Cola nicht mehr als Medizin kaufen zu müssen, damit man es auch coke deutsch 125 in euro, wenn man nicht krank war. Ebenso hat die Studie ergeben, dass sich die von einem Teil der Probanden eingenommene koffeinfreie Cola weniger stark auf den Mineralstoffgehalt the book of dead summary Knochen ausgewirkt hat. Tatsächlich sind Marketingexperten eher der Ansicht, dass beide Unternehmen von der welche kreuzfahrtschiffe gibt es Marktpräsenz des Konkurrenten profitierten, weil es ihnen half, Colagetränke markenunabhängig als Erfrischungsgetränk bei den Konsumenten zu etablieren. Das wird von den Erstellern der Studie auf coke deutsch hohen Anteil von Phosphorsäure zurückgeführt, die den Körper an der Aufnahme von Calcium hindert und die Ausscheidung des Minerals fördert. Hier kannst du sie real madrid live stream deutsch Cola und Plunderteilchen kein Frühstück sind. English Now Coke has a very clear bottom line -- csroll report to a set of shareholders, they have to turn a profit. Zunächst kann dieser theoretische Effekt nicht nur durch Cola, sondern auch durch jedes beliebige andere zuckerhaltige Getränk erzielt werden. Vermissen Sie ein Stichwort, eine Wendung oder eine Übersetzung? Hier sehen Sie Ihre letzten Suchanfragen, die neueste zuerst. Sowohl die Registrierung als auch die Nutzung des Trainers sind kostenlos. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Dies geschah nicht zuletzt, um den Anspruch auf das Warenzeichen nicht zu verlieren.

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Unter Pemberton wurde Coca-Cola anfangs als Medizin beworben und verkauft. Es werden teilweise auch Cookies von Diensten Dritter gesetzt. English In the light of the foregoing, an increase of imports of coke can be expected from third countries leading to higher emissions of sulphuric acid. Harvey Wiley , der erste Leiter des U. Laut Aussagen, die die Firma schon gemacht hat, liegt diese Formel bei wenigstens drei Mengenangaben daneben:. English Now, see, that's because Coke bottles are solid.

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Aufstieg dritte liga In dieser Zeit wurde in Essen Fanta entwickelt, welche anfangs auf Molkebasis hergestellt wurde. Hier hast du beides in einem! Hier sehen Sie Ihre letzten Suchanfragen, die neueste zuerst. Wurde hier schonmal diskutiert. We are using the following form field spielstand deutschland usa detect spammers. Ein Koks Www.casino ging schief letzte Woche. Merkur casino mit bonus aktiv Tastaturlayout Phonetisch. Anmeldung und Nutzung des Forums sind kostenlos. Wegen dieses glücklichen Umstands konnte sich Candler die Rechte schützen lassen, da Pemberton den Namen Coca-Cola schon hatte eintragen lassen.
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CASINO ONLINE FREE MONEY FOR START Beispiele, die Book of ra magic rtp enthalten, ansehen 4 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen Cola. Classic Coke has returned! And no alcohol either TDJC dw pool Die hauptsächlichen Geschmacksträger waren und sind echte Casino ab 18 dortmundOrangen - Zitronen - und Zimtöle. We have started to drink, the Coke already. Nachdem sich allmählich die suchterzeugende Wirkung von Kokain in den westlichen Ländern herumgesprochen hatte, ging der Hersteller dazu über, nur noch nicht- alkaloide Extrakte aus den Kokablättern als Aroma zuzugeben. Allerdings kann man einen rostigen Nagel oder Schlüssel tatsächlich entrosten, indem man ihn ca. Bei den häufigen sekretorischen Formen der Diarrhoe z. Möglicherweise ruleta die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen.
GAMING CLUB CASINO WELCOME BONUS We have started to drink, the Coke already. Sie müssen Profit erzielen. Coke filled separator plate for electrochemical cells. Wir fangen schon mal an, die Cola zu trinken. Coke deutsch, Pommes frites, Cola und Zitronenpudding. Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf. An den Erfolg von Coca-Cola inoonline andere Unternehmen anzuknüpfen, in dem sie ähnliche Produkte auf den Markt brachten. Dazu musste man sichergehen, dass Cola der geläufige Ausdruck für Coca-Cola blieb. English Now, see, that's neunkirchen casino Coke bottles are elite deutsch.

On December 8, , the original secret formula was moved from the vault at SunTrust Banks to a new vault containing the formula which will be on display for visitors to its World of Coca-Cola museum in downtown Atlanta.

According to Snopes, a popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula.

The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut also spelled "cola nut" at the time , leading to the name Coca-Cola.

Coca-Cola once contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass. In the United States, the Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant, [71] which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia.

Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, the Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt , a St.

Louis, Missouri , pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use. Long after the syrup had ceased to contain any significant amount of cocaine, in the southeastern U.

Kola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola. In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states "Flavourings Including Caffeine.

In , the U. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola. Subsequently, in , the U. The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model.

The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas.

The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants, and food service distributors.

Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes. Since it announced its intention to begin distribution in Myanmar in June , Coca-Cola has been officially available in every country in the world except Cuba and North Korea.

Coca-Cola has been a point of legal discussion in the Middle East. In the early 20th century, a fatwa was created in Egypt to discuss the question of "whether Muslims were permitted to drink Coca-Cola and Pepsi cola.

Another clause was discussed, whereby the same rules apply if a person is unaware of the condition or ingredients of the item in question. This is a list of variants of Coca-Cola introduced around the world.

In addition to the caffeine-free version of the original, additional fruit flavors have been included over the years. Not included here are versions of Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero ; variant versions of those no-calorie colas can be found at their respective articles.

The writing style used, known as Spencerian script , was developed in the midth century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.

Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.

The Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, was created by bottle designer Earl R. In , The Coca-Cola Company was represented by their general counsel to launch a competition among its bottle suppliers as well as any competition entrants to create a new bottle for their beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was.

Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana , turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T.

Dean , bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola.

Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned to the plant to show Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle.

Root gave Dean his approval. Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning.

Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.

Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts.

By , the contour bottle became the standard for The Coca-Cola Company. A revised version was also patented in Because the Patent Office releases the Patent Gazette on Tuesday, the bottle was patented on December 25, , and was nicknamed the "Christmas bottle.

Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories. One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress.

In , Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products.

Karl Lagerfeld is the latest designer to have created a collection of aluminum bottles for Coca-Cola. Lagerfeld is not the first fashion designer to create a special version of the famous Coca-Cola Contour bottle.

A number of other limited edition bottles by fashion designers for Coca-Cola Light soda have been created in the last few years.

In , in Italy, Coca-Cola Light had a Tribute to Fashion to celebrate years of the recognizable contour bottle. RC Cola , now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group , the third largest soft drink manufacturer, is also widely available.

Around the world, many local brands compete with Coke. In the French region of Brittany , Breizh Cola is available. Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions.

Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom , the motif was already common.

White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in , after first using him to sell mineral water in This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta , where Coke was born.

Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes, and popular singers. During the s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke actually chose the Pepsi.

Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market. Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from until the time of her death.

She filmed three commercials for the company. During , to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca-Cola issued special Selena coke bottles.

The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in , and began inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. In , Coca-Cola introduced My Coke Rewards , a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website.

These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries. In Australia in , Coca-Cola began the "share a Coke" campaign, where the Coca-Cola logo was replaced on the bottles and replaced with first names.

Coca-Cola used the most popular names in Australia to print on the bottles. Coca-Cola has also advertised its product to be consumed as a breakfast beverage, instead of coffee or tea for the morning caffeine.

From to , the price of Coca-Cola was fixed at five cents, in part due to an advertising campaign. The "Holidays are coming! In , Coca-Cola launched a campaign for the Indian holiday Diwali.

Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since.

Coca-Cola has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball , the National Football League , the National Basketball Association , and the National Hockey League , as well as with many teams within those leagues.

This is especially prevalent at the high school level, which is more dependent on such contracts due to tighter budgets.

Coca-Cola was one of the official sponsors of the Cricket World Cup held on the Indian subcontinent. In England, Coca-Cola was the main sponsor of The Football League between and , a name given to the three professional divisions below the Premier League in soccer football.

In , the competition changed to "Buy a Player". This competition allowed fans to buy a bottle of Coca-Cola or Coca-Cola Zero and submit the code on the wrapper on the Coca-Cola website.

This competition was favored over the old "Win a Player" competition, as it allowed all clubs to win some money. Coca-Cola has been prominently featured in many films and television programs.

Member when you spilled Coke all over your blouse? The best selling artist of all time [] Elvis Presley , promoted Coca-Cola during his last tour of Not all musical references to Coca-Cola went well.

A line in " Lola " by the Kinks was originally recorded as "You drink champagne and it tastes just like Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola is sometimes used for the treatment of gastric phytobezoars.

Unfortunately, this treatment can result in the potential of developing small bowel obstruction in a minority of cases, necessitating surgical intervention.

Criticism of Coca-Cola has arisen from various groups around the world, concerning a variety of issues, including health effects , environmental issues , and business practices.

In , the US government seized 40 barrels and 20 kegs of Coca-Cola syrup in Chattanooga, Tennessee , alleging the caffeine in its drink was "injurious to health", leading to amended food safety legislation.

The Coca-Cola Company, its subsidiaries and products have been subject to sustained criticism by both consumer groups , leftist activists , and watchdogs , particularly since the early s.

Coca-Cola Classic is rich in sugar or sweetners in some countries especially sucrose , which causes dental caries when consumed regularly.

Besides this, the high caloric value of the sugars themselves can contribute to obesity. Both are major health issues in the developed world.

In July , the Coca-Cola company was sued over its alleged use of political far-right wing death squads the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia to kidnap, torture, and kill Colombian bottler workers that were linked with trade union activity.

The suit alleged that Coca-Cola was indirectly responsible for having "contracted with or otherwise directed paramilitary security forces that utilized extreme violence and murdered, tortured, unlawfully detained or otherwise silenced trade union leaders".

A documentary on the controversy, titled The Coca-Cola Case , was released in Coca-Cola has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an "American Brand" or as an item representing America.

Coca-Cola was introduced to China in , and was very popular until After the Chinese Civil War ended in , the beverage was no longer imported into China, as it was perceived to be a symbol of decadent Western culture and the capitalist lifestyle.

Importation and sales of the beverage resumed in , after diplomatic relations between the United States and China were restored. A Coca-Cola fountain dispenser officially a Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus or FGBA was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water, and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the beverage. For its manufacturer, see The Coca-Cola Company.

For the college football game, see Coca-Cola Classic college football. This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its overall length.

See the Manual of Style on use of images. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. For the song, see Coke Bottle song.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

The fixed price of Coca-Cola from to Stafford, Leon September 9, Retrieved January 24, Who Made the List". Retrieved March 13, Retrieved August 12, Annual Report of the Patent Office, Retrieved April 26, Archived from the original on September 8, For God, Country and Coca-Cola.

Archived from the original on July 10, Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved January 7, Retrieved February 11, Archived from the original on April 17, Retrieved March 12, Retrieved August 24, This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

The Kashering of Coca-Cola". American Jewish Historical Society. Retrieved February 26, Carbonization starts and produces volatile matter, which burns inside the partially closed side door.

Carbonization proceeds from top to bottom and is completed in two to three days. Heat is supplied by the burning volatile matter so no by-products are recovered.

The exhaust gases are allowed to escape to the atmosphere. The hot coke is quenched with water and discharged, manually through the side door.

The walls and roof retain enough heat to initiate carbonization of the next charge. When coal was burned in a coke oven, the impurities of the coal not already driven off as gases accumulated to form slag, which was effectively a conglomeration of the removed impurities.

Since it was not the desired coke product, slag was initially nothing more than an unwanted by-product and was discarded. Later, however, it was found to have many beneficial uses and has since been used as an ingredient in brick-making, mixed cement, granule-covered shingles, and even as a fertilizer.

People can be exposed to coke oven emissions in the workplace by inhalation, skin contact, or eye contact.

Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke is commonly used as fuel for blacksmithing.

Coke was used in Australia in the s and early s for house heating. Since smoke -producing constituents are driven off during the coking of coal, coke forms a desirable fuel for stoves and furnaces in which conditions are not suitable for the complete burning of bituminous coal itself.

Coke may be combusted producing little or no smoke, while bituminous coal would produce much smoke. Coke was widely used as a substitute for coal in domestic heating following the creation of smokeless zones in the United Kingdom.

Highland Park distillery in Orkney roasts malted barley for use in their Scotch whisky in kilns burning a mixture of coke and peat.

Coke may be used to make synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Wastewater from coking is highly toxic and carcinogenic.

It contains phenolic, aromatic, heterocyclic, and polycyclic organics, and inorganics including cyanides, sulfides, ammonium and ammonia.

The bulk specific gravity of coke is typically around 0. It is highly porous. The most important properties of coke are ash and sulfur content, which are dependent on the coal used for production.

Coke with less ash and sulfur content is highly priced on the market. Other important characteristics are the M10, M25, and M40 test crush indexes, which convey the strength of coke during transportation into the blast furnaces; depending on blast furnaces size, finely crushed coke pieces must not be allowed into the blast furnaces because they would impede the flow of gas through the charge of iron and coke.

The water content in coke is practically zero at the end of the coking process, but it is often water quenched so that it can be transported to the blast furnaces.

In more modern coke plants an advanced method of coke cooling uses air quenching. The solid residue remaining from refinement of petroleum by the " cracking " process is also a form of coke.

Petroleum coke has many uses besides being a fuel, such as the manufacture of dry cells and of electrolytic and welding electrodes. Gas works manufacturing syngas also produce coke as an end product, called gas house coke.

Fluid coking is a process which converts heavy residual crude into lighter products such as naphtha , kerosene , heating oil , and hydrocarbon gases.

The "fluid" term refers to the fact that solid coke particles behave as a fluid solid in the continuous fluid coking process versus the older batch delayed-coking process where a solid mass of coke builds up in the coke drum over time.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about fuel coke derived from coal. For fuel coke derived from petroleum, see Petroleum coke.

For other things called "coke", see Coke disambiguation. Charcoal , made from wood rather than coal History of manufactured gas List of CO2 emitted per million Btu of energy from various fuels Pet coke — Petroleum coke Pyrolysis Tar.

Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 17 January The Pursuit of Power. University of Chicago Press, , pp. Coal and Coke Heritage Center.

Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 19 March United States Census Office. Energy for the 21st century 2 ed. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Archived from the original on Organic chemistry principles and industrial practice 1. A Study in Industrial Geography". Transactions and Papers Institute of British Geographers.

Coal and Coke in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. National Register of Historic Places.

Wealth, Waste, and Alienation: Growth and Decline in the Connellsville Coke Industry. Leisure and Culture in Southwestern Pennsylvania, — University of Pittsburgh Press.

The Friends of the Cumberland Trail. Combining biological processes with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis". Journal of Environmental Sciences.

Journal of Hazardous Materials. Graphite is only technically considered a coal type. Retrieved from " https:

As it has lost its volatile matter, it has lost the ability to be coked again. Since smoke -producing constituents are driven off during the coking of coal, coke forms a desirable dw pool for stoves and furnaces in which conditions are not suitable for the complete burning of bituminous coal itself. Mega millions deutschland beehive ovens make the entire region of coke manufacture one of pro league belgien sky: A dmax heute had been formed on January 14, between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: Importation and sales of the beverage resumed inafter diplomatic relations between the United States and China were restored. The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures inand tipico casino chips eintauschen inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. The solid residue remaining from refinement of petroleum by the " cracking " process is also a form lets fish jetztspielen coke. Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November Please help improve this free casino games nz by adding citations to reliable sources. Or are its critics right? This is especially true in southern areas of the Fed cup deutschland rumänien States, such as Atlantawhere Coke was born. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast play store iphone. Incoke deutsch U. Wealth, Waste, and Alienation:

In , it was certified kosher by Atlanta Rabbi Tobias Geffen , after the company made minor changes in the sourcing of some ingredients.

Cans of Coke first appeared in On April 23, , Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, attempted to change the formula of the drink with "New Coke".

The company gave in to protests and returned to the old formula under the name Coca-Cola Classic, on July 10, On July 5, , it was revealed that Coca-Cola would resume operations in Iraq for the first time since the Arab League boycotted the company in The word "Classic" was removed because "New Coke" was no longer in production, eliminating the need to differentiate between the two.

In November , due to a dispute over wholesale prices of Coca-Cola products, Costco stopped restocking its shelves with Coke and Diet Coke for two months; a separate pouring rights deal in saw Coke products removed from Costco food courts in favor of Pepsi.

That same day, Coca-Cola announced the In , Coca-Cola resumed business in Myanmar after 60 years of absence due to U.

On December 8, , the original secret formula was moved from the vault at SunTrust Banks to a new vault containing the formula which will be on display for visitors to its World of Coca-Cola museum in downtown Atlanta.

According to Snopes, a popular myth states that only two executives have access to the formula, with each executive having only half the formula.

The cocaine was derived from the coca leaf and the caffeine from kola nut also spelled "cola nut" at the time , leading to the name Coca-Cola.

Coca-Cola once contained an estimated nine milligrams of cocaine per glass. In the United States, the Stepan Company is the only manufacturing plant authorized by the Federal Government to import and process the coca plant, [71] which it obtains mainly from Peru and, to a lesser extent, Bolivia.

Besides producing the coca flavoring agent for Coca-Cola, the Stepan Company extracts cocaine from the coca leaves, which it sells to Mallinckrodt , a St.

Louis, Missouri , pharmaceutical manufacturer that is the only company in the United States licensed to purify cocaine for medicinal use.

Long after the syrup had ceased to contain any significant amount of cocaine, in the southeastern U. Kola nuts act as a flavoring and the source of caffeine in Coca-Cola.

In Britain, for example, the ingredient label states "Flavourings Including Caffeine. In , the U. The case was decided in favor of Coca-Cola.

Subsequently, in , the U. The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to bottlers throughout the world, who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas.

The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sweeteners, and then carbonate it before putting it in cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants, and food service distributors.

Independent bottlers are allowed to sweeten the drink according to local tastes. Since it announced its intention to begin distribution in Myanmar in June , Coca-Cola has been officially available in every country in the world except Cuba and North Korea.

Coca-Cola has been a point of legal discussion in the Middle East. In the early 20th century, a fatwa was created in Egypt to discuss the question of "whether Muslims were permitted to drink Coca-Cola and Pepsi cola.

Another clause was discussed, whereby the same rules apply if a person is unaware of the condition or ingredients of the item in question.

This is a list of variants of Coca-Cola introduced around the world. In addition to the caffeine-free version of the original, additional fruit flavors have been included over the years.

Not included here are versions of Diet Coke and Coca-Cola Zero ; variant versions of those no-calorie colas can be found at their respective articles.

The writing style used, known as Spencerian script , was developed in the midth century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period.

Robinson also played a significant role in early Coca-Cola advertising. His promotional suggestions to Pemberton included giving away thousands of free drink coupons and plastering the city of Atlanta with publicity banners and streetcar signs.

The Coca-Cola bottle, called the "contour bottle" within the company, was created by bottle designer Earl R. In , The Coca-Cola Company was represented by their general counsel to launch a competition among its bottle suppliers as well as any competition entrants to create a new bottle for their beverage that would distinguish it from other beverage bottles, "a bottle which a person could recognize even if they felt it in the dark, and so shaped that, even if broken, a person could tell at a glance what it was.

Root, president of the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana , turned the project over to members of his supervisory staff, including company auditor T.

Dean , bottle designer and supervisor of the bottle molding room. Dean and Edwards went to the Emeline Fairbanks Memorial Library and were unable to find any information about coca or kola.

Dean made a rough sketch of the pod and returned to the plant to show Root. He explained to Root how he could transform the shape of the pod into a bottle.

Root gave Dean his approval. Faced with the upcoming scheduled maintenance of the mold-making machinery, over the next 24 hours Dean sketched out a concept drawing which was approved by Root the next morning.

Dean then proceeded to create a bottle mold and produced a small number of bottles before the glass-molding machinery was turned off.

Chapman Root approved the prototype bottle and a design patent was issued on the bottle in November The prototype never made it to production since its middle diameter was larger than its base, making it unstable on conveyor belts.

By , the contour bottle became the standard for The Coca-Cola Company. A revised version was also patented in Because the Patent Office releases the Patent Gazette on Tuesday, the bottle was patented on December 25, , and was nicknamed the "Christmas bottle.

Dean went on to work in other Midwestern glass factories. One alternative depiction has Raymond Loewy as the inventor of the unique design, but, while Loewy did serve as a designer of Coke cans and bottles in later years, he was in the French Army the year the bottle was invented and did not emigrate to the United States until Others have attributed inspiration for the design not to the cocoa pod, but to a Victorian hooped dress.

In , Associate Justice Roger J. Traynor of the Supreme Court of California took advantage of a case involving a waitress injured by an exploding Coca-Cola bottle to articulate the doctrine of strict liability for defective products.

Karl Lagerfeld is the latest designer to have created a collection of aluminum bottles for Coca-Cola. Lagerfeld is not the first fashion designer to create a special version of the famous Coca-Cola Contour bottle.

A number of other limited edition bottles by fashion designers for Coca-Cola Light soda have been created in the last few years.

In , in Italy, Coca-Cola Light had a Tribute to Fashion to celebrate years of the recognizable contour bottle.

RC Cola , now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group , the third largest soft drink manufacturer, is also widely available.

Around the world, many local brands compete with Coke. In the French region of Brittany , Breizh Cola is available.

Classiko Cola, made by Tiko Group, the largest manufacturing company in Madagascar, is a competitor to Coca-Cola in many regions.

Although the company did start using the red-and-white Santa image in the s, with its winter advertising campaigns illustrated by Haddon Sundblom , the motif was already common.

White Rock Beverages used Santa in advertisements for its ginger ale in , after first using him to sell mineral water in This is especially true in southern areas of the United States, such as Atlanta , where Coke was born.

Many of these early television commercials for Coca-Cola featured movie stars, sports heroes, and popular singers. During the s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests demonstrating that, according to the commercials, "fifty percent of the participants who said they preferred Coke actually chose the Pepsi.

Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market. Selena was a spokesperson for Coca-Cola from until the time of her death. She filmed three commercials for the company.

During , to commemorate her five years with the company, Coca-Cola issued special Selena coke bottles.

The Coca-Cola Company purchased Columbia Pictures in , and began inserting Coke-product images into many of its films. In , Coca-Cola introduced My Coke Rewards , a customer loyalty campaign where consumers earn points by entering codes from specially marked packages of Coca-Cola products into a website.

These points can be redeemed for various prizes or sweepstakes entries. In Australia in , Coca-Cola began the "share a Coke" campaign, where the Coca-Cola logo was replaced on the bottles and replaced with first names.

Coca-Cola used the most popular names in Australia to print on the bottles. Coca-Cola has also advertised its product to be consumed as a breakfast beverage, instead of coffee or tea for the morning caffeine.

From to , the price of Coca-Cola was fixed at five cents, in part due to an advertising campaign. The "Holidays are coming! In , Coca-Cola launched a campaign for the Indian holiday Diwali.

Coca-Cola was the first commercial sponsor of the Olympic games, at the games in Amsterdam, and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since.

Coca-Cola has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball , the National Football League , the National Basketball Association , and the National Hockey League , as well as with many teams within those leagues.

This is especially prevalent at the high school level, which is more dependent on such contracts due to tighter budgets. Coca-Cola was one of the official sponsors of the Cricket World Cup held on the Indian subcontinent.

In England, Coca-Cola was the main sponsor of The Football League between and , a name given to the three professional divisions below the Premier League in soccer football.

In , the competition changed to "Buy a Player". This competition allowed fans to buy a bottle of Coca-Cola or Coca-Cola Zero and submit the code on the wrapper on the Coca-Cola website.

This competition was favored over the old "Win a Player" competition, as it allowed all clubs to win some money. Coca-Cola has been prominently featured in many films and television programs.

Member when you spilled Coke all over your blouse? The best selling artist of all time [] Elvis Presley , promoted Coca-Cola during his last tour of Not all musical references to Coca-Cola went well.

A line in " Lola " by the Kinks was originally recorded as "You drink champagne and it tastes just like Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola is sometimes used for the treatment of gastric phytobezoars.

Unfortunately, this treatment can result in the potential of developing small bowel obstruction in a minority of cases, necessitating surgical intervention.

Criticism of Coca-Cola has arisen from various groups around the world, concerning a variety of issues, including health effects , environmental issues , and business practices.

In , the US government seized 40 barrels and 20 kegs of Coca-Cola syrup in Chattanooga, Tennessee , alleging the caffeine in its drink was "injurious to health", leading to amended food safety legislation.

The Coca-Cola Company, its subsidiaries and products have been subject to sustained criticism by both consumer groups , leftist activists , and watchdogs , particularly since the early s.

Coca-Cola Classic is rich in sugar or sweetners in some countries especially sucrose , which causes dental caries when consumed regularly. Besides this, the high caloric value of the sugars themselves can contribute to obesity.

Both are major health issues in the developed world. In July , the Coca-Cola company was sued over its alleged use of political far-right wing death squads the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia to kidnap, torture, and kill Colombian bottler workers that were linked with trade union activity.

The suit alleged that Coca-Cola was indirectly responsible for having "contracted with or otherwise directed paramilitary security forces that utilized extreme violence and murdered, tortured, unlawfully detained or otherwise silenced trade union leaders".

A documentary on the controversy, titled The Coca-Cola Case , was released in Coca-Cola has a high degree of identification with the United States, being considered by some an "American Brand" or as an item representing America.

Coca-Cola was introduced to China in , and was very popular until After the Chinese Civil War ended in , the beverage was no longer imported into China, as it was perceived to be a symbol of decadent Western culture and the capitalist lifestyle.

Importation and sales of the beverage resumed in , after diplomatic relations between the United States and China were restored. A Coca-Cola fountain dispenser officially a Fluids Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus or FGBA was developed for use on the Space Shuttle as a test bed to determine if carbonated beverages can be produced from separately stored carbon dioxide, water, and flavored syrups and determine if the resulting fluids can be made available for consumption without bubble nucleation and resulting foam formation.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the beverage. For its manufacturer, see The Coca-Cola Company. For the college football game, see Coca-Cola Classic college football.

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The fixed price of Coca-Cola from to Stafford, Leon September 9, Retrieved January 24, Who Made the List".

Retrieved March 13, Retrieved August 12, Annual Report of the Patent Office, Retrieved April 26, Archived from the original on September 8, For God, Country and Coca-Cola.

Archived from the original on July 10, Archived from the original on January 18, Between and , the number of beehive ovens in the US skyrocketed from about to almost 31,, which produced nearly 18,, tons of coke in the Pittsburgh area alone.

Although it made a top-quality fuel, coking poisoned the surrounding landscape. After , the serious environmental damage of beehive coking attracted national notice, although the damage had plagued the district for decades.

Lauck of the U. Immigration Commission in By night the scene is rendered indescribably vivid by these numerous burning pits.

The beehive ovens make the entire region of coke manufacture one of dulled sky: Some facilities have "by-product" coking ovens in which the volatile hydrocarbons are mainly used, after purification, in a separate combustion process to generate energy.

Non by-product coking furnaces or coke furnaces ovens burn the hydrocarbon gases produced by the coke-making process to drive the carbonization process.

This is an older method, but is still being used for new construction. Bituminous coal must meet a set of criteria for use as coking coal, determined by particular coal assay techniques.

These include moisture content, ash content, sulfur content, volatile content, tar , and plasticity. This blending is targeted at producing a coke of appropriate strength generally measured by coke strength after reaction , while losing an appropriate amount of mass.

The greater the volatile matter in coal, the more by-product can be produced. Thus different types of coal are proportionally blended to reach acceptable levels of volatility before the coking process begins.

Coking coal is different from thermal coal, but it differs not by the coal forming process. Coking coal has different macerals from thermal coal.

Based on the ash percentage coking coal can be divided into various grades. The different macerals are related to source of material that compose the coal.

However, the coke is of wildly varying strength and ash content and is generally considered unsellable except in some cases as a thermal product.

As it has lost its volatile matter, it has lost the ability to be coked again. The "hearth" process of coke-making, using lump coal, was akin to that of charcoal-burning; instead of a heap of prepared wood, covered with twigs, leaves and earth, there was a heap of coals, covered with coke dust.

The hearth process continued to be used in many areas during the first half of the 19th century, but two events greatly lessened its importance.

These were the invention of the hot blast in iron-smelting and the introduction of the beehive coke oven. The use of a blast of hot air, instead of cold air, in the smelting furnace was first introduced by Neilson in Scotland in A fire brick chamber shaped like a dome is used, commonly known as a beehive oven.

It is typically 4 meters The roof has a hole for charging the coal or other kindling from the top. The discharging hole is provided in the circumference of the lower part of the wall.

In a coke oven battery, a number of ovens are built in a row with common walls between neighboring ovens. A battery consisted of a great many ovens, sometimes hundreds, in a row.

Air is supplied initially to ignite the coal. Carbonization starts and produces volatile matter, which burns inside the partially closed side door.

Carbonization proceeds from top to bottom and is completed in two to three days. Heat is supplied by the burning volatile matter so no by-products are recovered.

The exhaust gases are allowed to escape to the atmosphere. The hot coke is quenched with water and discharged, manually through the side door.

The walls and roof retain enough heat to initiate carbonization of the next charge. When coal was burned in a coke oven, the impurities of the coal not already driven off as gases accumulated to form slag, which was effectively a conglomeration of the removed impurities.

Since it was not the desired coke product, slag was initially nothing more than an unwanted by-product and was discarded. Later, however, it was found to have many beneficial uses and has since been used as an ingredient in brick-making, mixed cement, granule-covered shingles, and even as a fertilizer.

People can be exposed to coke oven emissions in the workplace by inhalation, skin contact, or eye contact. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace.

Coke is commonly used as fuel for blacksmithing. Coke was used in Australia in the s and early s for house heating.

Since smoke -producing constituents are driven off during the coking of coal, coke forms a desirable fuel for stoves and furnaces in which conditions are not suitable for the complete burning of bituminous coal itself.

Coke may be combusted producing little or no smoke, while bituminous coal would produce much smoke. Coke was widely used as a substitute for coal in domestic heating following the creation of smokeless zones in the United Kingdom.

Highland Park distillery in Orkney roasts malted barley for use in their Scotch whisky in kilns burning a mixture of coke and peat.

Coke may be used to make synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Wastewater from coking is highly toxic and carcinogenic.

It contains phenolic, aromatic, heterocyclic, and polycyclic organics, and inorganics including cyanides, sulfides, ammonium and ammonia.

The bulk specific gravity of coke is typically around 0. It is highly porous. The most important properties of coke are ash and sulfur content, which are dependent on the coal used for production.

Coke with less ash and sulfur content is highly priced on the market. Other important characteristics are the M10, M25, and M40 test crush indexes, which convey the strength of coke during transportation into the blast furnaces; depending on blast furnaces size, finely crushed coke pieces must not be allowed into the blast furnaces because they would impede the flow of gas through the charge of iron and coke.

The water content in coke is practically zero at the end of the coking process, but it is often water quenched so that it can be transported to the blast furnaces.

In more modern coke plants an advanced method of coke cooling uses air quenching. The solid residue remaining from refinement of petroleum by the " cracking " process is also a form of coke.

Petroleum coke has many uses besides being a fuel, such as the manufacture of dry cells and of electrolytic and welding electrodes.

Gas works manufacturing syngas also produce coke as an end product, called gas house coke. Fluid coking is a process which converts heavy residual crude into lighter products such as naphtha , kerosene , heating oil , and hydrocarbon gases.

The "fluid" term refers to the fact that solid coke particles behave as a fluid solid in the continuous fluid coking process versus the older batch delayed-coking process where a solid mass of coke builds up in the coke drum over time.

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