Karneval football

karneval football

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The old tradition vanished in many places, in other places under influence of German carnival traditions it came to resemble carnival with its parades.

The carnival session, also known as the "Fifth Season", begins each year on 11 November at Although the festivities and parties start as early as the beginning of January, the actual carnival week starts on the Fat Thursday Weiberfastnacht before Ash Wednesday in Germany.

The big German carnival parades are held on the weekend before and especially on Rosenmontag , the day before Shrove Tuesday , and sometimes also on Shrove Tuesday Faschingsdienstag or Veilchendienstag itself in the suburbs of larger carnival cities.

In German-speaking countries, there are essentially 2 distinct variations of Carnivals: The Rhenish Carnival Rheinischer Karneval , mainly in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate is famous for celebrations such as parades and costume balls.

Cologne Carnival is the largest and most famous. In the Rhineland festivities developed especially strongly, since it was a way to express subversive anti- Prussian and anti-French thoughts in times of occupation, through parody and mockery.

Modern carnival there began in with the founding of a Carnival Club in Cologne. Most cities and villages of the Rhineland have their own individual carnival traditions.

In the Rhineland, the culmination of the carnival around Rosenmontag is considered to be the "fifth season of the year". Clubs organize "sessions" which are show events called Sitzung with club members or invited guests performing dance, comedy and songs in costumes.

The most frequently performed piece of music during such "sessions" is the " Narrhallamarsch ". The committee that organizes the events in each town consists of a president and 10 junior members and is called the "Council of Eleven" or Elferrat.

The carnival spirit is then temporarily suspended during Advent and Christmas, and picks up again in earnest in the New Year. The main event is the street carnival that takes place in the period between the Thursday before Ash Wednesday and Ash Wednesday.

This celebrates the beginning of the "female presence in carnival", which began in , when washer-women celebrated a "workless day" on the Thursday before carnival.

They founded a committee in to strengthen their presence in the still male-dominated carnival celebrations.

In Managua , it is celebrated for two days. There it is named Alegria por la vida "Joy for Life" and features a different theme each year.

Another festival in Managua celebrates patron saint Domingo de Guzman and lasts ten days. Traditionally beginning on Friday and ending on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, "los Carnavales", as Panamanians refer to the days of Carnival, are celebrated across the country.

Carnival Week is especially popular because of the opulent Las Tablas Carnival as well as the Carnival celebrations in Panama City and almost all of the Azuero Peninsula.

The Panamanian Carnival is also popular because of the concerts in the most visited areas. The town of Cajamarca is considered the capital of Carnival in Peru.

Local residents of all ages dance around the unsha , or yunsa , a tree adorned with ribbons, balloons, toys, fruits, bottles of liquor, and other prizes.

At a certain point, the Mayordomo governor of the feast walks into the circle. The governor chooses a partner to go to the unsha , which they attempt to cut down by striking it three times with a machete.

The machete is passed from couple to couple as each strikes the tree three times. When the unsha finally falls, the crowd rushes to grab the prizes.

While generally peaceful, there have been issues with people using Carnival as a pretext for crime, particularly robbery or vandalism, especially in certain areas of Lima.

The celebration lasts one week and ends on the day before Ash Wednesday. It is one of the oldest carnivals of the Western Hemisphere, dating to Carnival combines costumes, dance, music, competitions, rum, and partying fete-ing.

Music styles include soca, calypso , rapso , and more recently chutney and chutney soca. The annual Carnival steel pan competition known as the National Panorama competition holds the finals on the Saturday before the main event.

Here the Calypso Monarch is chosen after competition and prize money and a vehicle awarded. The King and Queen of the bands are crowned, where each band parades costumes for two days and submits a king and queen, from which an overall winner is chosen.

It means "opening of the day". Revelers dress in costumes embodying puns on current affairs, especially political and social events.

A common character is "Jab-jabs" devils, blue, black, or red complete with pitchfork, pointed horns and tails. Carnival Monday involves the parade of the mas bands.

Revelers wear only parts of their costumes, more for fun than display or competition. Monday Night Mas is popular in most towns and especially the capital, where smaller bands compete.

There is also the "Bomb Competition", a smaller-scaled judging of steel bands. Carnival Tuesday hosts the main events. Usually "Mas Boots" that complement the costumes are worn.

Each band has their costume presentation based on a particular theme, and contains various sections some consisting of thousands of revelers that reflect these themes.

The street parade and band costume competition take place. The singer of the most played song is crowned Road March King or Queen, earning prize money and usually a vehicle.

This parading and revelry goes on until Tuesday midnight. Ash Wednesday itself, while not an official holiday, sends flocks to local beaches.

Krewes organize parades, balls, and other activities. Carnival celebrations, usually referred to as Mardi Gras "Fat Tuesday" in French , were first celebrated in the Gulf Coast area, but now occur in many states.

Customs originated in the onetime French colonial capitals of Mobile now in Alabama , New Orleans Louisiana , and Biloxi Mississippi , all of which have celebrated for many years with street parades and masked balls.

Other major American cities with celebrations include Washington, D. Carnival is celebrated in New York City in Brooklyn.

That country has one of the largest Caribbean Carnivals. In the mid twentieth century, West Indians moved the event from the beginning of Lent to the Labor Day weekend.

Carnival is one of the largest parades and street festivals in New York, with over one million attending. Starting in , the Slovenian-American community located in the St.

Clair-Superior neighborhood of Cleveland began hosting a local version of Kurentovanje , the Carnival event held in the city of Ptuj , Slovenia.

Mardi Gras celebrations are spreading to other regions, such as the Mississippi Valley region of St. The Carnival in Uruguay lasts more than 40 days, generally beginning towards the end of January and running through mid March.

Celebrations in Montevideo are the largest. The festival is performed in the European parade style with elements from Bantu and Angolan Benguela cultures imported with slaves in colonial times.

During the celebration, theaters called tablados are built in many places throughout the cities, especially in Montevideo. The carnival in Uruguay have escolas de samba too, and the biggest samba parades are in Artigas and in Montevideo.

Revelers wear their festival clothing. Each group has its own theme. Women wearing elegant, bright dresses are called vedettes and provide a sensual touch to parades.

Carnival in Venezuela covers two days, 40 days before Easter. It is a time when youth in many rural towns have water fights including the use of water balloons and water guns.

Any pedestrian risks a soaking. Coastal towns and provinces celebrate Carnival more fervently than elsewhere in the country.

Venezuelans regard Carnival about the same way they regard Christmas and Semana Santa Holy Week ; the week before Easter Sunday when they take the opportunity to visit their families.

In India, Carnival is celebrated only in the state of Goa and a Roman Catholic tradition, where it is known as Intruz which means "swindler" while Entrudo is the appropriate word in Portuguese for "Carnival".

The largest celebration takes place in the city of Panjim , which was part of Velha Conquista in Goa, but now is celebrated throughout the state.

The tradition was introduced by the Portuguese who ruled Goa for over four centuries. The crepes are filled with freshly grated coconut and heated condensed coconut sap that sequentially converts it into a brown sweet molasses ; additional heat concentration solidifies it to jaggery.

The celebrations of Carnival peak for three days and nights and precede Ash Wednesday, when the legendary King Momo takes over the state. All-night parades occur throughout the state with bands, dances, and floats.

Grand balls are held in the evenings. Although Portugal introduced Christianity and the customs related to Catholic practice in India and Brazil, the celebrations in Goa like Portugal have begun to adopt some aspects of Brazilian-style Carnival celebrations, in particular those of Rio de Janeiro with sumptuous parades, samba and other musical elements.

In Indonesia , the word "carnival" or karnaval is not related to pre- Lent festivities, but more to festivals in general, especially those with processions and extravagant costumes.

For almost five centuries, local Greek communities throughout Istanbul celebrated Carnival with weeks of bawdy parades, lavish balls, and street parties.

This continued for weeks before Lent. Baklahorani took place on Shrove Monday, the last day of the carnival season. The event was led by the Greek Orthodox community, but the celebrations were public and inter-communal.

Many parts of Belgium celebrate Carnival, typically with costume parades, partying and fireworks. The Carnival of Binche dates at least to the 14th century.

Parades are held over the three days before Lent; the most important participants are the Gilles , who wear traditional costumes on Shrove Tuesday and throw blood oranges to the crowd.

The celebration takes place during the four days before Shrove Tuesday. All the old traditional costumes parade in the street. People who are disguised pass through the crowd and perform a part of the traditional costume they wear.

Some Belgian cities hold Carnivals during Lent. The participants include the Blancs-Moussis , who dress in white, carry long red noses and parade through town attacking bystanders with confetti and dried pig bladders.

The town of Halle also celebrates on Laetare Sunday. The most famous Croatian Carnival Croatian: The festival includes several events, culminating on the final Sunday in a masked procession.

A similar procession for children takes place on the previous weekend. Some of the towns and places are Grobnik, Permani, Kastav and many others places near Rijeka.

Just before the end of Carnival, every Kvarner town burns a man-like doll called a "Pust", who is blamed for all the strife of the previous year.

The traditional Carnival food is fritule , a pastry. This festival can also be called Poklade. Masks are worn to many of the festivities, including concerts and parties.

Children and teachers are commonly allowed to wear masks to school for a day, and also wear masks at school dances or while trick-or-treating. Carnivals also take place in summer.

One of the most famous is the Senj Summer Carnival — first celebrated in Carnival has been celebrated in Cyprus for centuries. The tradition was likely established under Venetian rule around the 16th century.

It may have been influenced by Greek traditions, such as festivities for deities such as Dionysus. The celebration originally involved dressing in costumes and holding masked balls or visiting friends.

In the twentieth century, it became an organized event held during the 10 days preceding Lent according to the Greek Orthodox calendar. The festival is celebrated almost exclusively in the city of Limassol.

Three main parades take place during Carnival. The first is held on the first day, during which the "Carnival King" either a person in costume or an effigy rides through the city on his carriage.

The second is held on the first Sunday of the festival, and the participants are mainly children. The latter two parades are open to anyone who wishes to participate.

The word masopust translates literally from old Czech to mean "meat fast", and the festival often includes a pork feast. The tradition is most common in Moravia but also occurs in Bohemia.

While practices vary, masks and costumes are present everywhere. The holiday is sometimes described as a Nordic Halloween , with children dressing in costume and gathering treats for the Fastelavn feast.

One popular custom is the fastelavnsris , a switch that children use to flog their parents to wake them up on Fastelavns Sunday.

In Norway , students having seen celebrations in Paris introduced Carnival processions, masked balls, and Carnival balls to Christiana in the s and s.

In England , the season immediately before Lent was called Shrovetide. A time for confessing sins "shriving" , it had fewer festivities than the Continental Carnivals.

Five days of music and street events culminating with a Grand Ball on Fat Tuesday itself. Loosely based on the New Orleans style of carnival, Hastings has taken its own course.

The Nice Carnival was held as far back as , and annually attracts over a million visitors during the two weeks preceding Lent. Since , a characteristic masked Carnival is celebrated in Limoux.

The Dunkirk Carnival is among the greatest and most exuberant carnivals celebrated in Europe. In the French West Indies , it occurs between the Sunday of Epiphany and Ash Wednesday; [94] this dates back to the arrival of French colonists in the islands.

The earliest written record of Carnival in Germany was in in Speyer. This time is also called the "Fifth Season". Shrove Tuesday, called Fastnacht or Veilchendienstag , is celebrated in some cities.

Parties feature self-made and more fanciful costumes and occasional masks. The parties become more exuberant as the weeks progress and peak after New Year, in January and February.

The final Tuesday features all-night parties, dancing, hugging, and smooching. Some parties are for all, some for women only and some for children.

Some cities are more famous for celebrations such as parades and costume balls. The biggest german carnival club is located in a little town Dieburg in South Hesse.

Special acrobatic show dances in mock uniforms are a traditional contribution to most festive balls. They may or may not have been a source of inspiration to American cheerleading.

The Fasching parades and floats make fun of individual politicians and other public figures. Many speeches do the same.

Traditions often also include the "Faschingssitzung" - a sit-only party with dancing and singing presentations, and often many speeches given that humorously criticize politics.

During the pagan era, it represented the time of year when the reign of the grim winter spirits is over, and these spirits are hunted and expelled.

It then adapted to Catholicism. The first official record of Karneval, Fasching or Fastnacht in Germany dates to In Switzerland , Fasnacht takes place in the Catholic cantons of Switzerland, e.

Both began in the Late Middle Ages. Smaller Fasnacht festivities take place across German Switzerland, e. Lent begins on " Clean Monday ", the day after "Cheese Sunday".

The grand parade of masked troupes and floats is held at noon on Tyrine Sunday, and culminates in the ceremonial burning of the effigy of King Carnival at the Patras harbour.

Other regions host festivities of smaller extent, focused on the reenactment of traditional carnevalic customs, such as Tyrnavos Thessaly , Kozani Western Macedonia , Rethymno Crete , and in Xanthi Eastern Macedonia and Thrace.

Their reward for so doing is a shot of the famous local tsipouro alcohol spirit. Every year, from 1 to 8 January, mostly in regions of Western Macedonia, Carnival festivals erupt.

The best known is the Kastorian Carnival or "Ragoutsaria" Gr. It takes place from 6 to 8 January with mass participation serenaded by brass bands, pipises, and Macedonian and grand casa drums.

It involves locals dressing in woolly costumes, with scary masks and noise-makers. They perform a burial ritual to symbolise the end of winter and spike doughnuts on weapons to symbolise the defeat of the Ottomans.

The Carnival in Venice was first recorded in Carnival celebrations in Venice were halted after the city fell under Austrian control in , but were revived in the late 20th century.

The month-long Carnival of Viareggio is characterized mainly by its parade of floats and masks caricaturing popular figures.

In , the town built a new "Carnival citadel" dedicated to Carnival preparations and entertainment. The Carnival of Ivrea is famous for its " Battle of the Oranges " fought with fruit between the people on foot and the troops of the tyrant on carts, to remember the wars of the Middle Ages.

In the most part of the Archdiocese of Milan , the Carnival lasts four more days, ending on the Saturday after Ash Wednesday, because of the Ambrosian Rite.

In Sardinia , the Carnival in Sardinian language Carrasecare or Carrasegare [98] varies greatly from the one in the mainland of Italy: Its name in English means "the time before Lent".

The celebration corresponds to Carnival holiday traditions. A major element symbolizes the defeat of winter in the Northern Hemisphere. Devils, witches, goats, the grim reaper , and other joyful and frightening characters appear in costumes during the celebrations.

Eating pancakes is an important part of the celebration. In Luxembourg , the pre-Lenten holiday season is known as Fuesend.

Throughout the Grand-Duchy, parades and parties are held. The town of Remich holds a three-day-long celebration, notable for two special events in addition to its parades.

The other special event at the Remich Fuesend celebrations is the Buergbrennen or bonfire that closes the celebration. Like Remich, the town of Esch-sur-Alzette holds a three-day celebration.

Other major Fuesend parades in Luxembourg are held in the towns of Diekirch and Schifflange. Carnival in Malta Maltese: It is held during the week leading up to Ash Wednesday, and typically includes masked balls, fancy dresses, and grotesque mask competitions, lavish late-night parties, a colourful, ticker-tape parade of allegorical floats presided over by King Carnival Maltese: The largest celebration takes place in and around the capital city of Valletta and Floriana ; several more "spontaneous" Carnivals take place in more remote areas.

The Nadur Carnival is notable for its darker themes. Traditional dances include the parata , a lighthearted re-enactment of the victory of the Knights Hospitaller over the Turks , and an 18th-century court dance known as il-Maltija.

Carnival food includes perlini multi-coloured, sugar-coated almonds and the prinjolata , which is a towering assembly of sponge cake , biscuits, almonds, and citrus fruits, topped with cream and pine nuts.

Carnival in the Netherlands is called Carnaval , Vastenavond "Eve of Lent" or, in Limburgish , Vastelaovend j , and is mostly celebrated in traditionally Catholic regions, particularly in the southern provinces of North Brabant , Limburg and Zeeland , but also in Gelderland , especially in Twente.

While Dutch Carnaval is officially celebrated on the Sunday through Tuesday preceding Ash Wednesday, since the s the feast has gradually started earlier and generally includes now the preceding weekend.

Two main variants can be distinguished: The first known documentation dates from the late 8th century Indiculus superstitionum et paganiarum , but Carnaval was already mentioned during the First Council of Nicaea in and by Caesarius of Arles around CE.

Normal daily life comes to a stop for about a week in the southern part of the Netherlands during the carnival, with roads temporary blocked and many local businesses closed for the week as a result of employees who are en masse taking the days off during and the day after the carnival.

The Tuesday before the start of Lent is also often called Ostatki literally "leftovers" , meaning the last day to party before the Lenten season.

The traditional way to celebrate Carnival is the kulig , a horse-drawn sleigh ride through the snow-covered countryside. In modern times, Carnival is increasingly seen as an excuse for intensive partying and has become more commercialized, with stores offering Carnival-season sales.

Carnaval in Podence and Lazarim incorporates pagan traditions such as the careto , while the Torres Vedras celebration is probably the most typical.

Although Portugal introduced Christianity and the customs related to Catholic practice to Brazil, the country has begun to adopt some aspects of Brazilian-style Carnaval celebrations, in particular those of Rio de Janeiro with sumptuous parades, samba and other musical elements.

In Lazarim , a civil parish in the municipality of Lamego , celebrations follow the pagan tradition of Roman Saturnalias.

It celebrates by burning colorful effigies and dressing in home-made costumes. Locally-made wooden masks are worn. The masks are effigies of men and women with horns, but both roles are performed by men.

They are distinguished by their clothes, with caricature attributes of both men and women. The Lazarim Carnaval cycle encompasses two periods, the first starting on the fifth Sunday before Quinquagesima Sunday.

Masked figures and people wearing large sculpted heads walk through the town. The locals feast on meats, above all pork. The second cycle, held on Sundays preceding Ash Wednesday, incorporates the tradition of the Compadres and Comadres, with men and women displaying light-hearted authority over the other.

Skip to main content. You are here Home. Parade on Rose Monday. The climax of Carnival with the big, official parade - A colourful spectacle with thousands of people in fancy dress.

When do the famous parades take place? During the "crazy days" the "fifth season" culminates into a huge public festival.

People dress up, sing local songs and simply have fun. How to party on Carnival.

After the Salvador CarnivalPorto Seguro continues the celebration. Retrieved 20 April They have a more elaborated topaze online casino review that is easily recognizable by the typical countertenor voice. Recife is marked nächste spiel deutschland the parade of the largest carnival madness deutsch in the world, the Galo da Madrugada. Archived from the original on 21 February The festival is celebrated almost exclusively in the city of Limassol. The town of Remich holds a three-day-long celebration, notable for two special events in addition to its parades. Auto spiele online singers like David Guettawill. Although Portugal introduced Christianity and the customs related to Catholic practice in India and Brazil, the rolla casino in Goa like Portugal have begun to adopt some aspects league of legends name ändern Brazilian-style Carnival celebrations, in particular those of Rio de Janeiro with sumptuous parades, samba and other musical elements. The Carnival of Ivrea is famous for its " Live cricket com of the Oranges " fought with fruit between the people on foot and karneval football troops of the tyrant on carts, to remember the wars of the Middle Ages. In Luxembourgthe pre-Lenten holiday season is known as Fuesend. Alternative names are used for regional and local celebrations. Welche Website-Variante möchten Sie nutzen? Oder ein Play-Action-Pass, der von ein paar Dingen abhängig ist: Skandal paranormale aktivitäten der NFL: Gegen Kroatien können die deutschen Handballer bereits ihr Halbfinal-Ticket buchen. So sparen Sie bei mehr als Ausflügen! Hier gibt's das aktuelle Kino-Programm! Joe Theismann, ehemaliger Quarterback der Redskins, vermutet, casino primm valley resort in nevada seiner Karriere mehr als Deutschland wirft sich warm für das Halbfinale gegen Norwegen Gegen Spanien gewann die Nationalmannschaft mit Nach Verletzung und WM-Aus: Überhaupt nicht nach Football. Der Quarterback brüllt einen kostenlos jetzt spielen, scharfen Laut und Männer rennen aufeinander zu. Football ist ein amerikanischer Sport book of ra wie viele linien wer keine Anglizismen mag, stolpert hier bereits sehr schnell. Jahrhunderts dominierte dieser Copy trading forum die Spielfelder Amerikas. Bewegt sich die Defensive aber schon beim ersten Ruf und bevor der Ball in der Luft ist, gibt es eine Strafe zugunsten sv sandhausen jugend Angreifer. Oft sind solche Ansagen auch dazu da, um die Gegner zu verwirren. Jahrhunderts dominierte dieser Ruf die Spielfelder Amerikas. Heisman, der sowohl ausgebildeter Jurist, als auch Bühnenschauspieler war, wählte das Wort sowohl wegen der Kürze der Silbe, als auch wegen dem Bedeutungszusammenhang: Ob Thriller, Drama, Comedy oder Action: Skandal in der NFL: Beim ersten Versuch stehen die Offensivspieler an der Startlinie den defensiven Spielern gegenüber. Immerhin ist es eines der kürzesten Verben der Sprache. Mit der neuen RheinlandCard über 75 Mal freien Eintritt. So sparen Sie bei mehr als Ausflügen! Historische Aufnahmen aus Köln: Bewegt sich die Defensive aber schon beim ersten Ruf und bevor der Ball in der Luft ist, gibt es eine Strafe zugunsten der Angreifer.

In , a Shrovetide play spoke of Christians who painted their faces to celebrate the season: What, are there masques? Hear you me, Jessica: From an anthropological point of view, carnival is a reversal ritual, in which social roles are reversed and norms about desired behavior are suspended.

Winter was thought of as the reign of the winter spirits; these needed to be driven out in order for the summer to return.

Carnival can thus be regarded as a rite of passage from darkness to light, from winter to summer: Traditionally, a Carnival feast was the last opportunity for common people to eat well, as there was typically a food shortage at the end of the winter as stores ran out.

Until spring produce was available, people were limited to the minimum necessary meals during this period. On what nowadays is called vastenavond the days before fasting , all the remaining winter stores of lard, butter, and meat which were left would be eaten, for these would otherwise soon start to rot and decay.

The selected livestock had already been slaughtered in November and the meat would be no longer preservable. All the food that had survived the winter had to be eaten to assure that everyone was fed enough to survive until the coming spring would provide new food sources.

Several Germanic tribes celebrated the returning of the daylight. The winter would be driven out, to make sure that fertility could return in spring.

Tacitus wrote in his Germania: Ceterum nec cohibere parietibus deos neque in ullam humani oris speciem adsimulare ex magnitudine caelestium arbitrator — "The Germans, however, do not consider it consistent with the grandeur of celestial beings to confine the gods within walls, or to liken them to the form of any human countenance.

Traditionally, the feast also was a time to indulge sexual desires , which were supposed to be suppressed during the following period fasting. In many Christian sermons and texts, the example of a vessel is used to explain Christian doctrine: The writings show that processions with ship-like carts were held and lavish feasts were celebrated on the eve of Lent or the greeting of spring in the early Middle Ages.

The Lenten period of the liturgical calendar , the six weeks directly before Easter , was historically marked by fasting, study, and other pious or penitential practices.

During Lent, no parties or celebrations were held, and people refrained from eating rich foods, such as meat, dairy, fat, and sugar.

The first three classes were often totally unavailable during this period because of late winter shortages. While Christian festivals such as Corpus Christi were Church-sanctioned celebrations, Carnival was also a manifestation of European folk culture.

In the Christian tradition, the fasting is to commemorate the 40 days that Jesus fasted in the desert , according to the New Testament , and also to reflect on Christian values.

It was a time for catechumens those converting to Christianity to prepare for baptism at Easter. Carnival in the Middle Ages took not just a few days, but almost the entire period between Christmas and the beginning of Lent.

In those two months, Christian populations used their several holidays as an outlet for their daily frustrations.

Many synods and councils attempted to set things "right". Caesarius of Arles — protested around CE in his sermons against the pagan practices.

Centuries later, his statements were adapted as the building blocks of the Indiculus superstitionum et paganiarum "small index of superstitious and pagan practices" , which was drafted by the Synod of Leptines in It condemned the Spurcalibus en februario.

Pope Gregory the Great — decided that fasting would start on Ash Wednesday. The whole Carnival event was set before the fasting, to set a clear division between celebrations and penitence.

In the year , the synod in Leptines Leptines is located near Binche in Belgium spoke out furiously against the excesses in the month of February.

In the Middle Ages, "Carnival and Lent were both necessary, inevitable episodes in the eternal cycle of the Church year.

While forming an integral part of the Christian calendar, particularly in Catholic regions, many Carnival traditions resemble those antedating Christianity.

While medieval pageants and festivals such as Corpus Christi were church-sanctioned, Carnival was also a manifestation of medieval folk culture.

Many local Carnival customs are claimed to derive from local pre-Christian rituals, such as elaborate rites involving masked figures in the Swabian-Alemannic Fastnacht.

However, evidence is insufficient to establish a direct origin from Saturnalia or other ancient festivals. No complete accounts of Saturnalia survive, and the shared features of feasting, role reversals, temporary social equality, masks, and permitted rule-breaking do not necessarily constitute a coherent festival or link these festivals.

These similarities may represent a reservoir of cultural resources that can embody multiple meanings and functions. For example, Easter begins with the resurrection of Jesus , followed by a liminal period, and ends with rebirth.

Carnival reverses this as King Carnival comes to life, and a liminal period follows before his death. Both feasts are calculated by the lunar calendar.

Both Jesus and King Carnival may be seen as expiatory figures who make a gift to the people with their deaths.

In the case of Jesus, the gift is eternal life in heaven , and in the case of King Carnival, the acknowledgement that death is a necessary part of the cycle of life.

Holy Week processions in Spain include crowds who vociferously insult the figure of Jesus. Irreverence, parody, degradation, and laughter at a tragicomic effigy of God can be seen as intensifications of the sacred order.

Jews were forced to race naked through the streets of the city of Rome. Some of the best-known traditions, including carnal parades and masquerade balls , were first recorded in medieval Italy.

The Carnival of Venice was, for a long time, the most famous carnival although Napoleon abolished it in and only in was the tradition restored.

In the early 19th century in the German Rhineland and Southern Netherlands , the weakened medieval tradition also revived.

Continuously in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, as part of the annual Saturnalia abuse of the carnival in Rome, rabbis of the ghetto were forced to march through the city streets wearing foolish guise, jeered upon and pelted by a variety of missiles from the crowd.

In the Rhineland in , the first modern Carnival parade took place in Cologne. Carnaval Fasching or Fastnacht in Germany mixed pagan traditions with Christian traditions.

Other areas developed their own traditions. In the United Kingdom, West Indian immigrants brought with them the traditions of Caribbean Carnival ; however, the Carnivals now celebrated at Notting Hill , Leeds , Yorkshire, and other places became divorced from their religious origin and became secular events that take place in the summer months.

Interpretations of Carnival present it as a social institution that degrades or "uncrowns" the higher functions of thought, speech, and the soul by translating them into the grotesque body , which serves to renew society and the world, [3] as a release for impulses that threaten the social order that ultimately reinforces social norms, [38] as a social transformation, [39] or as a tool for different groups to focus attention on conflicts and incongruities by embodying them in "senseless" acts.

Carnival was introduced by Portuguese settlers. It has imported various Brazilian Carnival traditions. Carnibal was intriduced by German settlers.

The celebration is based on the "Rheinische" Carnival tradition. The Seychelles carnival began in It is held in the capital city of Victoria and takes place over three days.

On Day 1, the grand opening is held in the city center near the clock tower. The second day is parade day.

On Day 3, the closing ceremony is held, and a lottery winner is announced. The Harare Carnival is held late in May.

Events include fashion and music shows. The climax is a street party featuring costumes and music. It adopts a musical background similar to Brazilian or Uruguayan Carnival.

Corrientes is another city with a Carnival tradition. In all major cities and many towns throughout the country, Carnival is celebrated. As Carnival coincides with summer in the Southern Hemisphere, in many parts of Argentina children play with water.

The 19th century tradition of filling empty egg shells with water has evolved into water games that include the throwing of water balloons.

Carnival in Aruba means weeks of events that bring colourfully decorated floats, contagiously throbbing music, luxuriously costumed groups of celebrants of all ages, King and Queen elections, electrifying jump-ups and torchlight parades, the Jouvert morning: Music and flamboyant costumes play a central role, from the Queen elections to the Grand Parade.

Street parades continue in various districts throughout the month, with brass band, steel drum and roadmarch tunes. On the evening before Lent, Carnival ends with the symbolic burning of King Momo.

Junkanoo is the principal street parade in the Bahamas, it has been practiced in the Bahamas before and after the emancipation of slavery in the British Empire.

Its early beginnings were on the sugar cane plantations during the colonial period. Crop Over began in , and featured singing, dancing, and accompaniment by shak-shak , banjo , triangle , fiddle , guitar, bottles filled with water, and bones.

Other traditions included climbing a greased pole, feasting, and drinking competitions. Originally signaling the end of the yearly cane harvest, it evolved into a national festival.

In the late 20th century, Crop Over began to closely mirror the Trinidad Carnival. Carnival time for many islanders is one big party. A major feature is the calypso competition.

Calypso music, originating in Trinidad, uses syncopated rhythm and topical lyrics. It offers a medium in which to satirise local politics, amidst the general bacchanal.

The Cohobblopot Festival blends dance, drama, and music with the crowning of the King and Queen of costume bands. The climax of the festival is Kadooment Day, celebrated with a national holiday, when costume bands fill the streets with pulsating Barbadian rhythms and fireworks.

Elsewhere, Carnaval sometimes referred to as Carnival often occurs in September. The Fiesta de Carnaval is often the most popular celebration, usually held over three days prior to Ash Wednesday, but the festivities often extend to the full week.

Comparsas are held throughout the week, consisting of large groups "of dancers dancing and traveling on the streets, followed by a Carrosa carriage where the musicians play.

The Comparsa is a development of African processions where groups of devotees follow a given saint or deity during a particular religious celebration.

This simply means that a mixture of water paint and water or raw eggs is used to paint people on the streets, the goal being to paint as many people as you can.

Street fights often occur during the festivities - some locals treat this festival as an opportunity to exact revenge on their enemies. Vandalism is common and "businesses constantly have to prepare in covering or repainting their advertisements during Carnival season because of the mischief performed.

La Diablada Carnival takes place in Oruro in central Bolivia. Over 50 parade groups dance, sing, and play music over a five kilometre-long course.

Participants dress up as demons, devils, angels, Incas, and Spanish conquistadors. Dances include caporales and tinkus.

The parade runs from morning until late at night, 18 hours a day, for three days before Ash Wednesday. In Santa Cruz de la Sierra , on the east side of the country, tropical weather allows a Brazilian-type Carnival, with Comparsas dancing traditional songs in matching uniforms.

The Carnival in Brazil is a major part of Brazilian culture. It is sometimes referred to by Brazilians as the "Greatest Show on Earth".

The street carnival of Rio de Janeiro is designated by Guinness World Records as the largest carnival in the world, with approximately two million people each day.

Samba schools are large, social entities with thousands of members and a theme for their song and parade each year. Blocos are small informal groups with a definite theme in their samba, usually satirizing the political situation.

About 30 schools in Rio gather hundreds of thousands of participants. More than blocos operate in Rio. Bandas are samba musical bands, also called "street carnival bands", usually formed within a single neighborhood or musical background.

Recife is marked by the parade of the largest carnival block in the world, the Galo da Madrugada. In this block, there is a great variety of musical rhythms, but the most present is Frevo characteristic rhythm of both Recife and Olinda that was declared Intangible Heritage of Humanity by Unesco.

After the Salvador Carnival , Porto Seguro continues the celebration. Three circuits make up the festival. Campo Grande is the longest and most traditional.

International singers like David Guetta , will. The party officially takes six days, but can continue for more than that.

Toronto Caribbean Carnival, held in Toronto on the first weekend of August, has its origins in Caribbean Carnival traditions.

To take advantage of more comfortable weather, Toronto Caribbean Carnival [59] Attendance at the parade typically exceeds one million.

The Quebec Winter Carnival is the biggest winter-themed Carnival in the world. The carnival is held during the last days of January and first days of February.

In the Ottawa - Gatineau region, Winterlude takes place during February. Most Caribbean islands celebrate Carnival. The largest and most well-known is in Trinidad and Tobago.

Virgin Islands , Saint Vincent , and the Grenadines hold lengthy carnival seasons and large celebrations. Carnival is an important cultural event in the Dutch Caribbean.

Festivities include "jump-up" parades with beautifully colored costumes, floats, and live bands, as well as beauty contests and other competitions.

On Statia, he is called Prince Stupid. Carnival has been celebrated in Cuba since the 18th century. The events remained, albeit frowned upon by the state.

Carnival celebrations have been in decline throughout Cuba since then. Carnival was introduced by the Spaniards and incorporated elements from European cultures.

The Barranquilla Carnival includes several parades on Friday and Saturday nights beginning on 11 January and ending with a six-day non-stop festival, beginning the Wednesday prior to Ash Wednesday and ending Tuesday midnight.

Carnival in Dominica is held in the capital city of Roseau , and takes elements of Carnival that can be seen in the neighbouring French islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe , as well as Trinidad.

Notable events leading up to Carnival include the Opening of Carnival celebrations, the Calypso Monarch music competition, the Queen of Carnival Beauty Pageant, and bouyon music bands.

Celebrations last for the Monday and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday. Dominican Carnival is celebrated in most cities and towns in the main streets during February.

Among its main characteristics are its flashy costumes and loud music. The one held in La Vega , which is one of the biggest in the country, and the national parade in Santo Domingo were where the first Carnival of the Americas was held.

Carvnival masks are elaborate and colorful. The costumes used on the parades are satires of the Devil and are called "Diablos Cojuelos". They dance, and run to the rhythm of merengue music mixed with techno, hip-hop, and reggaeton.

It exhibits the "Guloyas" parade of costumed groups dancing in the streets. Revelers flee from the "Diablos Cojuelos" who try to hit them with "Vejigas".

The timing of the festivals has grown apart from its original religious synchronization with the period of Lent. In Ecuador , the celebrations began before the arrival of Catholicism.

The Huarangas Indians from the Chimbos nation used to celebrate the second moon of the year with a festival at which they threw flour, flowers, and perfumed water.

This indigenous tradition merged with the Catholic celebration of Carnival. A common feature of Ecuadorian Carnival is the diablitos little devils who play with water.

As with snowball fights, the practice of throwing or dumping water on unsuspecting victims is revered by children and teenagers although feared by some adults.

Throwing water balloons, sometimes even eggs and flour both to friends and strangers is fun, but can also upset the uninformed.

Although the government as well as school authorities forbid such games, they are widely practiced. Historians tell of a bishop in who threatened excommunication for the sin of playing Carnival games.

Festivals differ across the country. Locals wear disguises with colorful masks and dance. Usually, the celebrations begin with the election of Taita Carnival Father Carnival who heads the festivities and leads the parades in each city.

Recently, a celebration has gained prominence in the northern part of the Andes in the Chota Valley in Imbabura which is a zone of a strong Afro-Ecuadorian population and so the Carnival is celebrated with bomba del chota music.

Latacunga celebrates Carnival in three manners: The Carnival of French Guiana has roots in Creole culture. Everyone participates — mainland French, Brazilians Guiana has a frontier with Brazil , and Chinese as well as Creoles.

Its duration is variable, determined by movable religious festivals: Carnival begins at Epiphany and ends on Ash Wednesday, and so typically lasts through most of January and February.

During this period, from Friday evening until Monday morning the entire country throbs to the rhythm of masked balls and street parades.

Friday afternoons are for eating galette des rois the cake of kings and drinking champagne. The cake may be flavoured with frangipani , guava , or coconut.

Competing groups prepare for months. Brazilian groups are appreciated for their elaborate feathered and sequined costumes.

However, they are not eligible for competition since the costumes do not change over time. Mythical characters appear regularly in the parades: A uniquely Creole tradition are the touloulous.

These women wear decorative gowns, gloves, masks, and headdresses that cover them completely, making them unrecognisable, even to the colour of their skin.

On Friday and Saturday nights of Carnival, touloulou balls are held in so-called "universities", large dance halls that open only at Carnival time.

Touloulous get in free, and are even given condoms in the interest of the sexual health of the community. Men attend the balls, but they pay admittance and are not disguised.

The touloulous pick their dance partners, who may not refuse. The setup is designed to make it easy for a woman to create a temporary liaison with a man in total anonymity.

Undisguised women are not welcomed. By tradition, if such a woman gets up to dance, the orchestra stops playing.

Alcohol is served at bars — the disguised women whisper to the men "touloulou thirsty", at which a round of drinks is expected, to be drunk through a straw protect their anonymity.

The final four days of Carnival follow a rigid schedule, and no work is done: The most famous Carnival celebration in Guatemala is in Mazatenango.

During February, Mazatenango is famous for its eight-day Carnival Feast. As one Guatemalan website states, "To mention the Carnival of Mazatenango is to bring to mind moments of a happy and cordial party.

Carnival in Haiti started in in the capital Port-au-Prince after the declaration of independence. It is known as Kanaval in the Creole language.

It starts in January, known as "Pre-Kanaval", while the main carnival activities begin in February. In July , Haiti had another carnival called Kanaval de Fleur.

An annual song competition takes place. Other places in Haiti celebrate carnival, including Jacmel and Aux Cayes. Carnival finishes on Ash Wednesday, followed by rara , another parading musical tradition known mainly in Haiti and in the Dominican Republic.

This festival emphasises religion. In Mexico , Carnaval is celebrated in about cities and towns. The largest of these is in Huejotzingo , Puebla , where most townspeople take part in mock combat with rifles shooting blanks, roughly based on the Battle of Puebla.

Other important states with local traditions include Morelos , Oaxaca , Tlaxcala , and Chiapas. In Managua , it is celebrated for two days.

There it is named Alegria por la vida "Joy for Life" and features a different theme each year. Another festival in Managua celebrates patron saint Domingo de Guzman and lasts ten days.

Traditionally beginning on Friday and ending on the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, "los Carnavales", as Panamanians refer to the days of Carnival, are celebrated across the country.

Carnival Week is especially popular because of the opulent Las Tablas Carnival as well as the Carnival celebrations in Panama City and almost all of the Azuero Peninsula.

The Panamanian Carnival is also popular because of the concerts in the most visited areas. The town of Cajamarca is considered the capital of Carnival in Peru.

Local residents of all ages dance around the unsha , or yunsa , a tree adorned with ribbons, balloons, toys, fruits, bottles of liquor, and other prizes.

At a certain point, the Mayordomo governor of the feast walks into the circle. The governor chooses a partner to go to the unsha , which they attempt to cut down by striking it three times with a machete.

The machete is passed from couple to couple as each strikes the tree three times. When the unsha finally falls, the crowd rushes to grab the prizes.

While generally peaceful, there have been issues with people using Carnival as a pretext for crime, particularly robbery or vandalism, especially in certain areas of Lima.

The celebration lasts one week and ends on the day before Ash Wednesday. It is one of the oldest carnivals of the Western Hemisphere, dating to Carnival combines costumes, dance, music, competitions, rum, and partying fete-ing.

Music styles include soca, calypso , rapso , and more recently chutney and chutney soca. The annual Carnival steel pan competition known as the National Panorama competition holds the finals on the Saturday before the main event.

Here the Calypso Monarch is chosen after competition and prize money and a vehicle awarded. The King and Queen of the bands are crowned, where each band parades costumes for two days and submits a king and queen, from which an overall winner is chosen.

It means "opening of the day". Revelers dress in costumes embodying puns on current affairs, especially political and social events.

A common character is "Jab-jabs" devils, blue, black, or red complete with pitchfork, pointed horns and tails.

Carnival Monday involves the parade of the mas bands. Revelers wear only parts of their costumes, more for fun than display or competition.

Monday Night Mas is popular in most towns and especially the capital, where smaller bands compete. There is also the "Bomb Competition", a smaller-scaled judging of steel bands.

Carnival Tuesday hosts the main events. Usually "Mas Boots" that complement the costumes are worn. Each band has their costume presentation based on a particular theme, and contains various sections some consisting of thousands of revelers that reflect these themes.

The street parade and band costume competition take place. The singer of the most played song is crowned Road March King or Queen, earning prize money and usually a vehicle.

This parading and revelry goes on until Tuesday midnight. Ash Wednesday itself, while not an official holiday, sends flocks to local beaches.

Krewes organize parades, balls, and other activities. Carnival celebrations, usually referred to as Mardi Gras "Fat Tuesday" in French , were first celebrated in the Gulf Coast area, but now occur in many states.

Customs originated in the onetime French colonial capitals of Mobile now in Alabama , New Orleans Louisiana , and Biloxi Mississippi , all of which have celebrated for many years with street parades and masked balls.

Other major American cities with celebrations include Washington, D. Carnival is celebrated in New York City in Brooklyn. That country has one of the largest Caribbean Carnivals.

In the mid twentieth century, West Indians moved the event from the beginning of Lent to the Labor Day weekend. Carnival is one of the largest parades and street festivals in New York, with over one million attending.

Starting in , the Slovenian-American community located in the St. Clair-Superior neighborhood of Cleveland began hosting a local version of Kurentovanje , the Carnival event held in the city of Ptuj , Slovenia.

Mardi Gras celebrations are spreading to other regions, such as the Mississippi Valley region of St. The Carnival in Uruguay lasts more than 40 days, generally beginning towards the end of January and running through mid March.

Celebrations in Montevideo are the largest. The festival is performed in the European parade style with elements from Bantu and Angolan Benguela cultures imported with slaves in colonial times.

During the celebration, theaters called tablados are built in many places throughout the cities, especially in Montevideo.

The carnival in Uruguay have escolas de samba too, and the biggest samba parades are in Artigas and in Montevideo. Revelers wear their festival clothing.

Each group has its own theme. Women wearing elegant, bright dresses are called vedettes and provide a sensual touch to parades. Carnival in Venezuela covers two days, 40 days before Easter.

It is a time when youth in many rural towns have water fights including the use of water balloons and water guns. Any pedestrian risks a soaking. Coastal towns and provinces celebrate Carnival more fervently than elsewhere in the country.

Venezuelans regard Carnival about the same way they regard Christmas and Semana Santa Holy Week ; the week before Easter Sunday when they take the opportunity to visit their families.

In India, Carnival is celebrated only in the state of Goa and a Roman Catholic tradition, where it is known as Intruz which means "swindler" while Entrudo is the appropriate word in Portuguese for "Carnival".

The largest celebration takes place in the city of Panjim , which was part of Velha Conquista in Goa, but now is celebrated throughout the state.

The tradition was introduced by the Portuguese who ruled Goa for over four centuries. The crepes are filled with freshly grated coconut and heated condensed coconut sap that sequentially converts it into a brown sweet molasses ; additional heat concentration solidifies it to jaggery.

The celebrations of Carnival peak for three days and nights and precede Ash Wednesday, when the legendary King Momo takes over the state.

All-night parades occur throughout the state with bands, dances, and floats. Grand balls are held in the evenings. Although Portugal introduced Christianity and the customs related to Catholic practice in India and Brazil, the celebrations in Goa like Portugal have begun to adopt some aspects of Brazilian-style Carnival celebrations, in particular those of Rio de Janeiro with sumptuous parades, samba and other musical elements.

In Indonesia , the word "carnival" or karnaval is not related to pre- Lent festivities, but more to festivals in general, especially those with processions and extravagant costumes.

For almost five centuries, local Greek communities throughout Istanbul celebrated Carnival with weeks of bawdy parades, lavish balls, and street parties.

This continued for weeks before Lent. Baklahorani took place on Shrove Monday, the last day of the carnival season. The event was led by the Greek Orthodox community, but the celebrations were public and inter-communal.

Many parts of Belgium celebrate Carnival, typically with costume parades, partying and fireworks. The Carnival of Binche dates at least to the 14th century.

Parades are held over the three days before Lent; the most important participants are the Gilles , who wear traditional costumes on Shrove Tuesday and throw blood oranges to the crowd.

The celebration takes place during the four days before Shrove Tuesday. All the old traditional costumes parade in the street.

People who are disguised pass through the crowd and perform a part of the traditional costume they wear. Some Belgian cities hold Carnivals during Lent.

The participants include the Blancs-Moussis , who dress in white, carry long red noses and parade through town attacking bystanders with confetti and dried pig bladders.

The town of Halle also celebrates on Laetare Sunday. The most famous Croatian Carnival Croatian: The festival includes several events, culminating on the final Sunday in a masked procession.

A similar procession for children takes place on the previous weekend. Some of the towns and places are Grobnik, Permani, Kastav and many others places near Rijeka.

Just before the end of Carnival, every Kvarner town burns a man-like doll called a "Pust", who is blamed for all the strife of the previous year.

The traditional Carnival food is fritule , a pastry. Parade on Rose Monday. The climax of Carnival with the big, official parade - A colourful spectacle with thousands of people in fancy dress.

When do the famous parades take place? During the "crazy days" the "fifth season" culminates into a huge public festival.

People dress up, sing local songs and simply have fun. How to party on Carnival. Carnival in Cologne is above all a festival of fancy dress.

There are no limits to imagination: Every region has its own characteristics, the Rhinelander being no exclusion. But the people of Cologne are a "nation" of their own kind.

Originally an idea of young people, today the "Alternative" Carnival involves all generations. Carnival in Cologne is almost as old as the history of the city itself.

Today there are approximately carnival societies, local history societies and district groups in Cologne which celebrate their home town festival in about sessions, balls and parades.

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