Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "thrifty car" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'thrifty' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Einfach Mietwagen buchen mit der Thrifty Autovermietung. Wir haben eine breite Auswahl an Wagen in Deutschland. Heute online buchen.
Thrifty Deutsch VideoEd Sheeran - Shape of You [Official Video] Furthermore, Volkswagen is conducting intensive research into alternative fuels and has for many years been investing billions in reducing consumption in direct-injection diesel and gasoline engines, Winterkorn added.. English It would prevent protectionist behaviour in national markets and - something which is not to be sniffed at - make it easier for politicians to be thrifty with people's taxes. Some wagon-loads of art objects and other furnishings rolled off to the imperial warehouses in Vienna, where for the following two decades the material would provide a rich source for decorating other imperial palaces.. Wir verstehen, dass sich Reisepläne leicht ändern können. Forumsdiskussionen, die den Suchbegriff enthalten Die Qualität dieses Stoff ist eher als "einfach" einzustufen, dafür ist der Preis ungeschlagen. Und die treibende Kraft des amerikanischen Wohlstands und der Freiheit innerhalb der letzten zwei Jahrhunderte, die sparsame Mittelklasse, ist nun am stärksten der Besteuerung sowie der Zerstörung ihrer wirtschaftlichen Freiheit ausgesetzt. Wörterbuch Konjugieren Phrasen Spiele Mehr von bab. In welchem Forum wollen Sie eine neue Anfrage starten? Wir bieten zudem zahlreiche Zusatzausstattungen an, um für noch mehr Komfort zu sorgen. Das war aber jetzt wirklich ein ganz sparsamer. Entdecken Sie die Welt zu günstigen Preisen.
An alternative idea to explain the greater prevalence of diabetes in more northerly populations was suggested by Moalem et al. High concentrations of these substances depress the freezing point of body fluids and prevent the formation of ice crystals in cells through supercooling, thus acting as a cryoprotectant or antifreeze for vital organs as well as in their muscle tissue.
They consequently suggested that factors predisposing to elevated levels of glucose, glycerol and other sugar derivatives may have been selected for, in part, as adaptive measures in exceedingly cold climates.
The authors suggest that this cryoprotective adaptation would have protected ancestral northern Europeans from the effects of suddenly increasingly colder climates, such as those believed to have arisen around 14, years ago and culminating in the Younger Dryas.
Since no human ever survived a period of hypothermia with a body temperature less than 10 oC, because of heart failure, there is no possibility that this could ever have provided any selective advantage in our past history — no matter how cold the external temperature was.
The theory cites diverse ethnic based differences in obesity susceptibility in western civilizations to contend that, neither the thrifty or drifty gene hypotheses can explain the demographics of the modern obesity crisis.
Sellayah and colleagues provide evidence of thermogenic capacity, metabolic rates and obesity prevalence in various indigenous populations in support of their argument.
The most highly cited alternative to the thrifty gene hypothesis is the drifty gene hypothesis proposed by the British biologist John Speakman. This idea differs fundamentally from all the other ideas in that it does not propose any selective advantage for the obese state, either now or in the past.
The main feature of this hypothesis is that the current pattern of obesity does not suggest that obesity has been under strong positive selection for a protracted period of time.
It is argued instead that the obesity comes about because of genetic drift in the genes controlling the upper limit on our body fatness. Such drift may have started because around 2 million years ago ancestral humans effectively removed the risk from predators, which was probably a key factor selecting against fatness.
The drifty gene hypothesis was presented as part of a presidential debate at the Obesity Society meeting in New Orleans, with the counter-arguments favouring the thrifty gene presented by British nutritionist Andrew Prentice.
It is argued by Prentice that famine may actually have only been a force driving evolution of thrifty genes for the past 15, years or so since the invention of agriculture , but because famines exert effects on both survival and fertility the selection pressure may have been sufficient even over such a short timescale to generate a pressure for "thrifty" genes.
These alternative arguments were published in two back-to-back papers in the International Journal of Obesity in November Two comprehensive studies have been performed seeking such signatures of selection.
In both cases there was no evidence for such selection signatures at a higher rate than in random genes selected for matched GC content and recombination rate.
Many attempts have been made to search for one or more genes contributing to thrift. Modern tools of genome wide association studies have revealed many genes with small effects associated with obesity or type 2 diabetes but all of them together explain only between 1.
The reasons for this discrepancy are not completely understood. A likely possibility is that the missing heritability is explained by rare variants of large effect that are found only in limited populations.
These would be impossible to detect by standard whole genome sequencing approaches even with hundreds of thousands of participants. The classic example of such a genetic effect is the presence of mutations in the leptin gene.
An important unanswered question is whether such rare variants exist because of chance mutations, population founder events and maintenance by processes such as drift, or whether there is any selective advantage involved in their maintenance and spread.
An example of such a rare variant effect was recently discovered among Samoan islanders. The variant predisposes to obesity but strangely is protective against type 2 diabetes.
The most likely scenario then is that this rare variant was established in the islanders by a founder effect among a small initial colonising population, and was able to spread because of a selective advantage it conferred within that small group.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 June Health and the rise of civilization. J R Soc Med.
Int J Obes Lond. In Van Itallie, Theodore B. An acquired and heritable predisposition for obesity and diabetes? Aggression control mechanisms gone out of control".
A cryoprotective evolutionary adaptation". Speakman and Sahar Heidari-Bakavoli August Am J Hum Genet. Uses authors parameter link CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation. N Engl J Med. Uses authors parameter link. Retrieved from " https: Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with unsourced statements from May Use dmy dates from August Views Read Edit View history.
The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that early-life metabolic adaptations help in survival of the organism by selecting an appropriate trajectory of growth in response to environmental cues.
Recently, some scientists have proposed that the thrifty phenotype prepares the organism for its likely adult environment in long term.
However, environmental changes during early development may result in the selected trajectory becoming inappropriate, resulting in adverse effects on health.
This paradox generates doubts about whether the thrifty phenotype is adaptive for human offspring. Thus, the thrifty phenotype should be considered as the capacity of all offspring to respond to environmental cues during early ontogenetic development.
It has been suggested that the thrifty phenotype is the consequence of three unlike adaptive processes: While developmental plasticity demonstrates an adaptation by the offspring, niche construction and parental effects are result of parental selections rather than offspring fitness.
Therefore, the thrifty phenotype can be described as a manipulation of offspring phenotype for the benefit of maternal fitness.
Many human diseases in adulthood are related to growth patterns during early life, determining early-life nutrition as the underlying mechanism.
Those with a thrifty phenotype who actually develop in an affluent environment may be more prone to metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type II diabetes , whereas those who have received a positive maternal forecast will be adapted to good conditions and therefore better able to cope with rich diets.
This idea Barker,  is now widely if not universally accepted and is a source of concern for societies undergoing a transition from sparse to better nutrition Robinson, .
Risk factors of thrifty phenotype include advanced maternal age and placental insufficiency. The ability to conserve, acquire and expend energy is believed to be an innate, ancient trait that is imbedded in the genome in a way that is quite protected against mutations.
On a larger anatomic scale, the molecular mechanisms are broadly caused by a suboptimal environment in the reproductive tract or maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy.